Ghana: Rice


Rice Summary Fact Sheet

National Output (2020 to 2022)

Paddy ('000)

  • 957    (2020)
  • 1,109 (2021}
  • 1,190 (2022)

Milled ('000)

  • 603 (2020)
  • 698 (2021)
  • 750 (2022)


Total Area Under Rice Cultivation in Ghana (2019 and 2021)
  • 282,000 Ha (2019)
  • 291,000 Ha (2020)
  • 308,000 Ha (2021)


Cropping Cycle
  • Three cycles under Irrigation
  • Two cycles in Forest, Transition and Coastal Savannah
  • One Cycle in Guinea Savannah


Planting Time

Major Season

  • Early March – End of April:  Forest, Transition and Coastal Savannah Zones
  • End of May-End of June: Guinea Savanna

Minor Season

  • August – September: Forest, Transition and Coastal Savannah zones
Density (Plant Population per Ha)
  • 30 cm x 1.5 cm (222,222)
  • 30 cm x 20 cm (250,000)
  • 20 cm x 10 cm (500,000)
Type(s) of Fertiliser Used for Production
  • NPK 15-20-20+0.7Zn: Forest-Savannah Transition and Guinea Savannah
  • NPK 11-22-21+5S+0.7Zn+0.5B: Guinea Savannah and Forest transition

All Agro-Ecologies  

  • NPK 25-10-10+6S+3MgO+0.3Zn - NPK 20-10-10+3S)
  • NPK 23-10-5+2MgO+3S+0.3Zn
Fertiliser Application Rate Per Ha
  • For transplanted field: 300kg of NPK/ha (split- 150/100/50) at 1-2WAP/4WAP/6WAP
  • For direct seeding, apply 300kg of NPK/ha at 2-3 weeks after seeding
  • Top-dress at booting stage, 6 weeks with 150 kg/ha of Urea

The recommended rate is 6 bags/ha NPK + 2 bags/ha urea

*WAP – Weeks After planting

Major Setbacks of Rice Production in Ghana
  • Poor agronomic practices by farmers in rainfed and irrigated ecosystems.
  • Lack of suitable technology and capacity to develop inland valley ecosystems for small holder rice producers.
  • Inadequate suitable rice cultivar to fit various ecological niches.
  • Poor quality planting materials.
Most Leading Rice Producing Regions in Ghana (2022)
  • Northern Region is the leading paddy production, accounting for 28% of total production.
  • The Northern, Volta, and Upper East Regions contribute more than half (72%) of the overall national output.


Potential Yield per Ha
  • 6,000 Kg/Ha  (6.0 Mt/Ha)
National Average Yield Per Ha (2021)
  • 3,200 Kg/Ha (3.2 Mt/Ha)


Rice Yield in the World
  • 46,089 kg/ Ha
 Market & Trade
Annual Import of Rice (2019-2022)

Rice Import volume ('000) 

  • 1,088MT (2019)
  • 706 MT (2020)
  • 667 MT (2021)
  • 830 MT (2022)

Rice Import Value in USD Million 

  • 374 (2019)
  • 199 (2020)
  • 192 (2021)
  • 283 (2022)
Self Sufficiency (2020)
  • 37% (2019)
  • 51% (2020)


Per Capita Consumption of Rice 2019-2020
  • 58.91kg (2019)
  • 52kg  (2020)
Emerging Risks
  • Recycling of seeds (farmer saved seeds) leading to low yields
  • Seed quality (lack of homogenous seeds of demanded varieties).
  • Poor post-harvest infrastructure.
  • Agrochemicals: Lack of knowledge among farmer and improper use of products.
  • Limited access to finance, leading to competition from imported rice.
  • Low farm mechanization.
  • High level of government involvement (input subsidization, market support, consumption forms).
  • Climate change and effect on water systems in production areas.
Paddy Rice- Milled Rice Recovery %

60 percent


General Overview of Rice Production

Rice is grown widely in the country by using different varieties that are adaptable to the various agro-ecological zones. It highly contributes to employment creation in Ghana. In 2020, Volta Region covered 29.63% of rice-planted areas of the country, followed by the Northern Region with 20.68%(SRID,MoFA). Approximately, 10% of farming households are thought to be employed by the rice industry (NRDS, 2016). With a total rice cropping area of 291,000 hectares in 2020,  an estimated average household holding of 0.4 hectares indicates an approximate total of 597,500 households’ involvement in rice cultivation. Rice is grown once or twice yearly under rain-fed and up to three cropping cycles per year under irrigation. 

The top five main producing regions in Ghana are:

  • Northern
  • Volta
  • Upper East
  • Oti
  • Ashanti

The Northern Region is the leading paddy production, accounting for 28% of total production. The Northern, Volta, and Upper East Regions contribute more than half (72%) of the overall national output.

The rice value chain, which includes input dealers, smallholder farmers, logisticians, processors, and distributors, employs more than 500,000 people.  Total rice consumption in 2022 was estimated to be around 1.5 million MT, representing a per capita consumption of 47kg. High population growth and increasing incomes account for the rise in the per capita consumption of rice.

In order to grow rice all year round, companies like Prairie Volta Limited, Global Agricultural Development Company (GADCO), Brazil Agro Business Limited, etc. have irrigated enormous tracts of land. The primary goal of rice projects has been to increase production levels and boost yields in order to lower the high import costs for rice. Ghana spent an estimated US$ 283 million  on rice importation in 2022. Ghana imports Rice primarily from: Vietnam, Thailand, India, Pakistan, China and United states.

Globally, the yield of rice production increased by 22% in Asia (which accounted for close to 90% of the global production in 2020) to 4.8 Mt/ha in 2020. The Americas have the greatest levels and the quickest growth rates (+56% between 2000 and 2020, to 6.5 Mt/ha). In contrast, the rice yield is the lowest, and declining, in Africa (-5% between 2000 and 2020, to 2.2 Mt/ha) (FAOSTAT, 2020).


Over the years, a number of rice varieties have been developed by Savannah Agricultural Research Institute (SARI) of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR)and released with facilitation from the National Variety Release and Registration Committee (NVRRC). Rice varieties in Ghana are generally adaptable to different environmental factors and conditions. These varieties have been general grouped under the following: 

  • Long-duration varieties (>160 days) suitable for irrigated areas or flood prone areas
  • Medium-duration varieties (120-140 days) suitable for both rain-fed and irrigated areas.
  • Short-duration varieties (<120 days) suitable for drought-prone areas or for double cropping.

Table 1: Some improved rice varieties and their characteristics

Name of


Distinctness Uniformity

and Stability (DUS)

Value for Cultivation and Use




Pedigree/ Line



Long and slender grain, aromatic, Yield potential 6.11Mt/ha Plant Height: 101-120 Grain Dimension (length: 6.5 width: 2.31, length/width ratio: 2.81)Chalkiness: Grade 2 Colour of Apiculus: StrawMaturity (110-115 days),Resistant to blast: tolerant; Resistance to iron toxicity: moderate; Resistant to lodging: good; White rice % (Milling yield): 70.4; Grain shape: long and slender; Cooking quality: Good; Amylose content: 16- 18%; Alkaline spreading value: 7







(Jasmine 85)

Long and slender grain, aromatic intermediate amylose content.

Maturity period 110-115 days. Yield potential of 5-6 MT/ha, Milling rate 62%. Excellent cooking quality. 

Very high consumer acceptability and good resistance to common pests and diseases

 Lowland &


Pure line Introduced

from USA with a name Jasmine 85

SikamoDays to 50% flowering: 90 –95;; Potential yield: 6.0 t/ha;

Maturity (days): 120 – 125 Resistance to blast: Tolerant;

Resistance to lodging: Tolerant; Grain shape: High N use efficiency; Caryopsis color: Long and slender; White rice % (Milling yield): 68.4; Cooking quality: Good; non sticky; high expansion ratio




Long and slender grain, 


Matures in 115 days. Yield potential of 4.8 MT, Very plastic (Can be grown across ecologies), adapted to low input systems. Milling rate 65%. Acceptable cooking quality especially for waakye, Jollof and Omutuo. Good resistance to common pests and diseases


& lowland

 Pure line Introduced

from IRRI,

Philippines with a

pedigree name of IR12979-24-1-1

 Nabogo Long and slender grain, non-aromatic intermediate amylose content. Matures in 120-130 days. Yield potential of 6-7 MT, Milling rate 60%. Very good cooking quality. High consumer acceptability and good resistance to common pests and diseases

 Lowland &


 Pure line Introduced from WRADA/AfricaRice

Nigeria with a pedigree name Tox 3233-31-6-2-3-1

 Katanga Long and slender grain, aromatic intermediate amylose content Matures in 130-140 days. Yield potential of 6-8 MT, Milling rate 62%. Excellent cooking quality. High consumer acceptability and good resistance to common pests and diseases Deep Lowland Pure line Introduced from WRADA/AfricaRice Nigeria with a pedigree name Tox 3972-10-1-2-1-1-3-2
 NERICA 1Drought tolerant, medium grain size, aromatic,  Matures in 90-95 days. Yield potential of 3-4 MT, high amylose, average consumer acceptability Upland Pure line Introduced from WARDA/AfricaRice , Cote d’Ivoire with a name NERICA 1
 NERICA 2 Drought tolerant, long and slender grain size, non- aromatic, Matures in 95-100 days. Yield potential of 3-4 MT, high amylose, average consumer acceptability Upland Pure line Introduced from WARDA/AfricaRice , Cote d’Ivoire with a name NERICA 2
Otoo mmoDays to 50% flowering: 80-85; Potential yield: 5.6 t/ha; Caryopsis color: White; White rice %(Milling yield): 66; Cooking quality: Good; Aroma: AbsentMaturity (days): 115 – 120; Resistant to blast: tolerant; Resistant to lodging: good; Grain shape: long and slender; Cooking quality: Good; Amylose content: 16.5%; Alkaline spreading value: 3.3Forest, Guinea savanna, Coastal savanna 
  CRI-AmankwatiaDays to 50% flowering: 80-85; Caryopsis color: White; White rice %(Milling yield): 70.4; Cooking quality: Good; Aroma: PresentMaturity (days): 115 – 120; Potential yield: 8.0 t/ha; Resistant to blast: tolerant; Resistant to lodging: good; White rice % (Milling yield): 70.4%; Grain shape: long and slender; Cooking quality: Good; Aromatic; Amylose content: 22.5%; Alkaline spreading value: 3.7Lowland 
CRI-EnapaLong grain, excellent cooking quality, slightly aromatic

Maturity: 125-130 days

Yield: 9.5 MT/HA

CRI-MpuntuoLong grain, good cooking quality, good processing quality, aromatic

Maturity: 115-120 days

Yield: 9.0 MT/HA

CRI-EmopaLong grain, excellent cooking quality, slightly aromatic

Maturity: 125-130 days

Yield : 90MT/HA

CRI-OboafoLong grain, good cooking quality, slightly aromatic

Maturity: 130-135 days

Yield: 9.5 MT/HA

CRI-KantinkaLong grain, excellent cooking quality, non-aromatic

Maturity: 120-125 days

Yield: 9.5 days

CRI-DarteyLong grain, excellent cooking quality, aromatic

Maturity: 120-125 days

Yield: 9.0 MT/HA



The main thrust of government policies for increased rice production under FASDEP II include:  

i) Exploitation of the vast lands of the inland valleys and swamp  

ii) Increased mechanization

iii) Varietal improvement and increased seed production and utilisation 

Rice Ecologies in Ghana

In Ghana, rice is cultivated under three main ecologies: rain-fed lowland, rain-fed upland and irrigated rice. The rain-fed lowland ecology predominantly covers over 84% of the total cropped area. The irrigation ecology covers 10% of the total rice area, while the upland area covers 6%.

Rain-fed Lowland Ecology

This ecology has water management problems as a result of frequent flooding from ground water and precipitation. However, when well developed (with simple water management techniques) and mechanised, its yield potential can be substantially enhanced. Studies undertaken in 1996 and confirmed in 2000 showed that the rain-fed lowland ecology is the most profitable for rice production provided water management and cultural practices are improved. Ghana’s strategy conforms to CARD’s goal which targets this ecology for increased rice production. Conservatively, it is estimated that Ghana has over 4 million ha of unexploited rain-fed lowlands.

Rain-fed Upland Ecology

This ecology is characterised by an erratic rainfall pattern. There are also problems of weed competition, low soil fertility and pest damage. Rice varieties suitable for the ecology are short duration and drought- tolerant types.

Irrigated Ecology

This ecology records the highest rice yields because the levels of technology utilization are higher than in both rain-fed lowland and upland ecologies (improved land preparation, improved varieties, fertilizer application and weed control through water management). 

Growing seasons are April/May- planting and July/August - harvest for Volta, Ashanti and Eastern regions.  In the Northern and Upper East, producers will typically plant in July/August and harvest in October/November.

Table 2: Categories of Rice Production System in Ghana 

CategoryCoverageAverage Yield (Mt/Ha)
Irrigated41,553.6Ha (16%)4.5Mt/ha
Rain-fed lowland202,573.8Ha (78% )3.0Mt/ha
Rain-fed upland155,582.6Ha (6%)2.2Mt/ha
Total259,710 Ha 
  • Average yield on-farm for the commodity in 2020 is 3.3 Mt/ha but has a potential of 6.0 Mt/ha.
  • In 2020, the area planted to rice nationwide  resulted in the production output of 973,000 metric tonnes of paddy.

Key Constraints

i. Poor agronomic practices by farmers in rainfed and irrigated ecosystems,  

ii. Lack of suitable technology and capacity to develop the inland valley ecosystems for smallholder rice producers,  

iii. Inadequate suitable rice cultivar to fit various ecological niches.  

iv. Poor quality planting materials (rice seeds are usually obtained by farmers from doubtful sources due to the absence of organized rice seed system in Ghana).

Table 3: Rice Production (Mt) Statistics

Top 5 Regions3-Yr Average (2018-2020)Share of Sub-TotalShare of Overall Total
NORTHERN 132,17525%22%
UPPER EAST 120,3938%7%
TOTAL AVG PROD (ALL REGIONS) 639,180 100%87%


Figure 1: Top Five Rice Producing Regions


Volta Region remains the leading rice (paddy) producing region in Ghana based on 3-yr average, recording a share of about 38 percent of total production in the country. The Volta Region and the Northern Region contributed more than half (60%) of the overall (national) total in Ghana. The top 5 regions together contributed an overall share of about 87 percent signifying how important these regions are in terms of rice production.

Figure 2: Average Yield of Rice by Region with National Average and Achievable (Potential) Yields



Ghana’s domestic rice production(Paddy) increased from 463,000 MT in 2011 to  119,000,000 MT in 2022 (MoFA) as shown in the figure below. The current per capita rice consumption is above 52 kg/person/year . The Government of Ghana (GOG) in 2017 introduced a Planting for Food and Jobs initiative to spur domestic rice production. The GOG has signalled its intent to make Ghana rice sufficient by 2027. The government envisages an increase in the production of rice over the current production level within a period of five years.

Figure 3: Rice Production (2008-2022)

S.W.O.T Analysis of Rice


  • Experience farmers
  • Good infrastructure for rice production (Irrigation)
  • High yield potential
  • Government support and extension services
  • suitable environment conditions (for multiple cropping)




  • Insufficient branding, market development and strategy
  • No strong linkages in the value chain
  • Small-sized farm
  • Inadequate post-harvest infrastructure leading to quality  and quantity loses


  • Big domestic market
  • Growing export market due to population growth globally
  • Adoption of advanced technology
  • Diversification and by-products
  • Increasing focus on agricultural investment


  • National rice self-sufficiency strategies in importing countries
  • Diminishing natural resources
  • Requirement and demands for food safety
  • Climate Change
  • Increasing global competition on world market.

Consumer Preference for Imported Rice & Opportunity for Local Production

Urban consumers (55 percent of Ghana’s population) account for 76 percent of total imported rice consumption. Ghanaian urban consumers prefer imported rice due to its higher quality. The rice market is driven by imported premium rice which has been growing at more than 20% annually. There is an increasing demand for high-quality rice and consumer preferences are changing towards fragrant and long-grain white rice. Consumers are willing to pay a premium of more than 20% for the cleanliness and attractiveness of imported rice. Perfumed rice is increasingly popular and now accounts for 81% of overall rice imports (48% of imported rice is <5% broken). Only 20 percent of domestically produced rice is consumed in urban areas due to its poor quality and a higher concentration of debris and stones. This shows there is a huge market potential for the local rice industry, if the quality is improved to compete with imported rice.


Rice Value Chain

Input Provision

The basic commodity needed in rice production is the seed. The quality of agro-inputs has a bearing on farmers productivity. The country has the potential to realize higher production levels of rice but constrained using less improved seeds, inadequate fertilizer, low mechanization and reliance on rainfall by the majority of rice farmers. The potential yield is reported to be above 6 Mt/Ha but the national average remains at 3.2 Mt/Ha. There are however only a few registered and trusted agro-input dealers in the country. The government envisages an increase in the production of rice by 49 percent over the 2019 production level within a period of five years. This would be achieved using improved high yielding and disease resistant rice seeds and quality agrochemicals (especially fertilizers) by farmers and the adoption of low-cost water management practices.    

Production (Producers)

Rice is grown throughout all regions of the country. However, the primary production zones are found in Volta, Ashanti, Eastern, Upper East, and Northern regions, with Volta being the highest producer. In most cases, rice is grown once per year, but in rare instances that irrigation is available, producers may plant two crops per year. The primary growing seasons are April/May planting and July/August harvest for Volta, Ashanti and Eastern regions. In the Northern and Upper East regions, producers will typically plant in July/August and harvest in October/November.

Production or producers under a typical rice value chain can be classified into three namely:

  • Small scale – Subsistence  

The farmers produce rice as a subsistence crop, use low-risk, low-input, low-yield strategy and depend on the rain for production. Ninety percent (90%) of the produced rice are consumed by themselves and sell surpluses to friends and other community members.  

  • Small scale – Commercial  

Farmers in this category produce rice under rain-fed and irrigation as a cash crop. Some commercial farmers are part of an irrigation scheme and outgrowers to a larger firm. They employ a low level of technology (mechanization, milling, reaping and threshing). Harvesting and processing of rice is done manually, or pay for harvesting, threshing, and milling. A high percentage of farmers are in this bracket.

  • Large Scale – Commercial  

Farmers in this category cultivate more land under formal tenure arrangements. They use mechanization and technology in harvesting and milling. They  often also purchase paddy from other farmers to top up their processing capacity. Marketing of their produce is done directly to retailers or consumers. 

Processing / Aggregation

Aggregators buy paddy rice from producers and sell to processors. Some of the aggregators in the rice markets pre-finance the smallholder farmers in the form of agricultural inputs, seed and cash. After the production and harvesting, the smallholder farmers pay back in kind, in the form of bags of paddy rice.

Processors mill the paddy rice and package into various bags (5kg, 25kg, and 50kg). Processors sometimes buy directly from farmers. Processing involve cleaning, de-stoning, hulling, whitening, polishing, grading and bagging.

There are a few small-scale mills mostly old and obsolete leading to high loses during processing. There are few processing companies dotted across the country in the largescale producing regions. Usually, fees are charged based on services rendered or contracted to a wholesaler. The processors or aggregators also buy and process paddy for sale as a business line. There are however low margins in the trading functions of purchasing paddy.

Rice processing

Threshing: Threshing is the physical process of separating the grains from the rice straw and the panicles. Threshing of rice can be done manually by hand, foot, or simply by a swinging, beating and whipping actions against a framed object. Threshing can also be done mechanically with diesel or electric powered threshers.

Drying: Drying is the process that reduces the moisture content of the rice paddy down to a safe-level where rice can be properly milled for storage. Drying is the most critical operation after harvesting a rice crop. Any delay in the drying process, incomplete drying or ineffective drying will reduce the grain quality and result in post-harvest losses. The drying methods include sun/solar and mechanical drying. Grains should be dried to achieve a moisture content of 12-14%.

Winnowing: Winnowing is the process to remove rice straw chaff, foreign matters (weed seeds, stones, impurities) and immature/empty grains within paddy after threshing and drying. High percentage of chaff, foreign matters will unnecessarily increase the number of sack of rice and weight of paddy, which may cost the grower avoidable transport fees and milling fees paid the mill operator; and for the rice mill operator the cost of wear-and-tear and spoilage to his machine.

Parboiling: Parboiling is an energy and labour-intensive pre-milling process aimed at improving the quality of paddy rice. It involves partial boiling of the paddy before milling in order to increase its nutritional value, to change the texture of cooked rice, and reduce the breakage in milling. Parboiling is done in three steps: soaking, steaming and drying. Parboiling causes a gelatinisation of the starch during the boiling and during cooling the amylase molecules re-associate with each other and form a tightly packed structure. The kernels are harder and appear glassier after the parboiling process. The parboiling process moves micro nutrients contained in the bran, which is usually removed in the whitening process in the rice mill, to the endosperm. Parboiled rice is therefore more nutritious than white rice. Parboiling also mends little cracks that might have developed in the endosperm during post-harvest processing and therefore head rice recoveries of parboiled rice are higher. Parboiled rice takes less time to cook and is firmer and less sticky when cooked.

 Milling: Rice milling is the next important stage in the post-harvest chain of techniques. In here the good grain is milled through mechanical means to remove the outer skin, hull, and bran reveal the white kernel and endosperm of the grain that is utilised as food product for human consumption. The by-products such as the germ and the brans can also be collected and utilised as a component to the formulation of stock feeds for poultry, other livestock and aquaculture.

Bagging/packaging/branding: Bagging/Packaging/Branding locally produced rice is an important component of marketing. The term branding is used to describe the marketing practice of creating a name, symbol or design that identifies and differentiates a product from other products or competitors. Over the years, increased competition from foreign rice brands has promoted the need for rice producers and other value chain actors in Ghana to focus on aggressive local rice packaging, branding and effective marketing.

Credit: Bhar, S., Bose, T., Dutta, A. et al.,2022.

Marketing and Distribution

Volta Region has the most commercial players in rice production and has a relatively well-developed production, processing and market industry players along the value chain. There is an emerging interest of commercial players in expanding into the region for rice production, such as VEGPRO, Africa Atlantic, Stallion (joint venture with Asia Golden Rice).  

There is also a growing commercial interest in the Northern Region. The region has more developed rice processing industry, but production and market is very fragmented with no major commercial players. Avnash mill, a largest rice processor in Ghana, is located in the Northern Region. 

An increasing number of smaller processors are setting up mills across the rice-growing regions, e.g. Amsig (Northern Region), Premium Food (Ashanti Region), GADCO (Volta Region).

The rice industry in the Upper East Region is not well organized and has a few major commercial players. Aggregators travel to the region to source rice for key markets like Kumasi.   

Avnash, a commercial rice miller in Tamale has shown interest to build a third mill in Bolgatanga to export rice to Burkina Faso.

Both imported and domestic rice are sold on the same market in the urban centres, but local supply can be irregular. About 70-75 percent of rice sold through retail outlets is imported. Importers prefer to buy rice in bulk and re-bag locally into 25kg, and 5kg, to accommodate consumer preferences and to maximize their profits. Rice importers sell to wholesalers, retailers, and directly to consumers. The traders then retail the rice on the open market. The imported rice sold in 5kg bags is the most preferred by the customers and is convenient to carry. Several smaller-sized private companies, however, actively import packaged rice of 2kg, and 1kg bags of various types, brands and qualities. 

Examples of Rice Marketing and Distribution Companies in Ghana:

Examples of Rice Mills and their milling capacity

NameRegionMilling Capacity
Tamanaa Company LimitedNorth East12.5mt/ hour
Worawora Rice Mill Limited (WRML)Oti3 mt/hour
Divine Brainz Ghana LimitedNorthern3 mt/hour
IERD Consult LimitedVolta1.7mt/hour
HGL LimitedVolta5mt/ hour
Brazil Agro Business Group LimitedVolta7.5mt/hour
Alsum Farms and Mechanization LimitedNorthern3 mt/hour
Farmer GlobaleVolta2mt/hour
SAMAK Agribusiness LimitedVolta6 mt/hour
Avnash Industries Ghana LtdNorthern20mt/ hour


Rice is the second most important cereal after corn in Ghana and is a major staple food. Human consumption in 2019/2020 production year was almost 1.9 million MT, above the 2018/2019 estimates of 1.5 million MT. The per capita rice consumption is estimated at about 52 kg/annum  below expected target of 60kg by close of 2020. With Ghana’s population now estimated by the Ghana Statistical Service at about 30 million, rice consumption is expected to increase accordingly.  

Rice consumption in Ghana has increased due to the following factors:  

  • Population growth,
  • Increasingly a main part of the diet in many Ghanaian homes due to its relative convenience in preparation and palatable recipes,
  • Increasing urbanization (Urban consumers, who represent 55 percent of Ghana’s population, account for 76 percent of total imported rice consumption.),
  • A large and growing expatriate community,
  • A growing entrepreneurial middle class,
  • A rapidly growing tourism sector,
  • An increase in women working outside the home,
  • The increase in the intake of students into the public high schools. These students are benefitting from a government free second cycle education policy and are fed mainly with products purchased from the domestic rice farmers,
  • An increasing number of restaurants and fast food vendors in major cities and towns.


Key Agronomic Practices

Key Agronomic Practices and their Importance 

Good Agricultural PracticeBrief Description and Importance

Planting Material


The basic planting material is seed/seedling. Most  varieties  in Ghana are Open Pollinated Variety, and one Hybrid. There are several varieties of these planting material released and registered in Ghana. Popular varieties include Gbewaa Rice (Jasmin 85), AGRA Rice, Legon 1, Amankwatia, Nericas 1&2, CRI-Emopa, CRI-Dartey, CRI-Enapa. 

Selecting the right variety suitable to the ecological zone and season is important. 

Conduct of seed germination test is recommended.


Nursery Establishment


A nursery is designed to produce seedlings, grown under favourable conditions until they are ready for planting. 

Some steps to consider in nursery management in rice includes:

  • Site Selection

A good nursery site should be open, well levelled and well-drained; have light or loose-textured soil to facilitate nursery operations; have a good source of water; be accessible to transportation, and be far from existing potential sources of rice insect pests and diseases. 

  • Nursery Bed Preparation

There are two main methods of preparing nursery beds: Wet-Bed and Dry-Bed methods. Nursery beds should be kept free from weeds, pest and disease (green leaf hoppers, termites etc.), and nutrient deficiencies. 

  • Water Management

In this era of climate change where there is dwindling water resources (low and erratic rainfall), it is expedient to use an integrated water management approach. Water management at the nursery involves the rationalization and removal of excess water, where applicable.

A Wet Seed Bed 

Land Preparation

Land can be prepared conventionally using tractor or animal traction to plough and harrow in the savannah and transition zones. Slashing followed by stumping, burning of trash and application of systemic herbicides to re-growth may be practiced in the forest ecologies. A good soil tillage practice contributes to efficient fertilizer use, increased soil porosity and aeration. The practice also has positive impact on germination, seedling emergence, crop establishment and weed control. Zero tillage may be done by small-scale farmers using total weed killers such as glyphosate and paraquat.

Forms of Land Preparation:

Slashing, application of herbicide, tractor harrowing, animal traction.




Planting is the most critical phase in the establishment of a new crop on a prepared field. Some steps to consider before planting includes seed selection, germination test and seed treatment. Altering planting dates can be used to escape diseases and pest attack.

Sowing time depends on the season as well as the agro-ecology. Sow after the rains have stabilized to avoid wilting. Planting should be done based on the maturity period of the crop and the weather information. 

Planting Time

Major Season

  • Early March – End of April:  Forest, Transition and Coastal Savannah Zones.
  • End of May-End of June: Guinea Savanna.

Minor Season

  • August – September: Forest, Transition and Coastal Savannah zones.

Methods of Planting

  • Transplanting - One seedling per hill.
  • Direct seeding (Dibbling and Drilling) - One seed per hill for drilled and 4 seed per hill for dibbled.
  • Broadcasting.

Transplanting: Seedlings are transplanted unto the field when they are between 12 to 14 days old at the nurseries or 21 days after seeding. 


Transplanting (Manual)

Mechanized Transplanter

Direct Seeding: Drilling and Dibbling 

Manual Drilling

Mechanical rice seed drill

Broadcasted rice field

Plant population per ha

  • 30cm x 1.5cm (2,222,222)
  • 30cm x 20cm (250,000)
  • 20cm x 10cm (500,000)


Choose suitable soilsRice grows best on well-drained sandy loam and loamy soils or soils with a shallow underground water table with good water holding capacities. 

Selection of Production area



Rice is generally adaptable to a wide range of environmental conditions. Consider the following in selecting a site for rice production:

  • Cropping history
  • Topography
  • Soil Type
  • Accessibility
Cropping System

Rice is cultivated under 3 system: 

  • Rain-fed upland,
  • Rain-fed lowland and
  • Irrigated low land

Irrigated lowland


Rouguing is very necessary especially in seed fields. This is done to remove off-types - plants that are not true to type, with undesirable characteristics, and diseased plants from the field. This is done to ensure that the crop retains its integrity as regards to certain physical attributes. It is also to avoid admixtures and ensure purity in grain type when harvested. Rogue whenever necessary.

This challenge has resulted in poor quality of produce resulting in poor patronage of the local rice.


Pest and Disease Management


The use of weather information and early warning systems guides farmers on the choice of appropriate crop protection measures to adopt against diseases, pests and weeds. Such measures include targeted use of recommended agrochemicals, altering the planting dates, spray when pests reach the economic threshold levels and use of natural enemies (biocontrol) etc.  Always use protective clothing when spraying. 

Insect Pest and Disease Control

Pests and diseases can cause considerable damage to cereals and therefore reduce crop productivity. The pests and diseases of cereals must be effectively managed through an integrated approach to optimize crop yield. The integrated Management involves the utilization of a variety of methods and techniques including, cultural, biological and chemical to control a multitude of pest problems. It is based on prevention, monitoring and control which offer the opportunity to eliminate or drastically reduce the use of pesticides and to minimize the toxicity of and exposure to any product which are used. 


Soil Fertility Management


Managing the amount, source, timing, and methods of nutrient application with the goal of optimizing farm productivity while minimizing nutrient losses that could create environmental problems is very essential. Conducting periodic soil tests helps in determining the nutrient (organic and inorganic) needs of cereals (rice) and makes the appropriate fertilizer recommendations. 

Some of the nutrient management techniques include composting, manure application and use of crop residues.  More precise matching of nutrients with plants needs as well as controlled release and deep placement techniques.

The recommended rate of fertilizer depends on the agro-ecology, soil type and cropping history of the field.

For transplanted field, apply 300kg of NPK/ha (split- 150/100/50) at 1-2WAP/4WAP/6WAP. 

(*WAP – Weeks After Planting).

For direct seeding, apply 300kg of NPK/ha at 2-3 weeks after seeding.

Top-dress at booting stage, 6 weeks with 150 kg/ha of Urea

The following NPK formulations have been made for the respective agro ecologies:

  • Guinea Savannah and Forest transition (NPK 11-22-21+5S+0.7Zn+0.5B)
  • Forest-Savannah Transition and Guinea Savannah (NPK 15-20-20+0.7Zn)
  • All agro-ecologies (NPK 25-10-10+6S+3MgO+0.3Zn and NPK 20-10-10+3S)

Recommended fertilizer application rate is 6 bags/ha NPK + 2 bags/ha urea


Weed Management


Weed management is most successful when it involves an integrated approach using a variety of methods. Weeds compete directly with plants and reduces yield. 

The 4 types of weed control measures, which are commonly used in cereal production, are preventive, cultural, chemical and mechanical.


Harvest Management


Harvesting rice on time is very important to maximize yields, minimizes grain losses and quality deterioration. 

The use of weather information is important in timing harvesting. 

Timely harvesting and post-harvest operations leads to preservation of grain quality, minimization of grain losses and reduction of cost. 

Rice should be harvested at physiological maturity. Harvesting should coincide with bright sunshine and dry weather.

Harvest early and ensure uniform drying to reduce paddy shattering and grain crack.


Post-Harvest practices 


Stages of Post-Harvest Handling

  • Field-drying
  • Threshing
  • Shed-drying
  • Cleaning
  • Grading
  • Weighing
  • Storing
  • Milling

Drying of Rice

Local weather information will help in deciding the drying method. The drying methods include sun/solar and mechanical drying. Dry on a concrete floor or tarpaulin to achieve moisture content of 12-14%.


This is a cleaning process, and must be done carefully to remove chaff, stems, weed seeds, stones and other impurities from the grain. Manual winnowing uses air to blow through  and clean the paddy. 

Winnowing could also be done mechanically. However, when a combine harvester and some mechanical harvesters are used, they allow for automatic winnowing.

Storage of Rice 

Storage involves holding and preserving produce from the time of production until they are needed for consumption. Storage protects the quality of produce from deterioration. The storage environment for cereals should be cool and dry to avoid the accumulation of moisture to prevent grain quality deterioration. A safe storage system should provide protection from insects, rodents, birds and other foreign materials. 

Rice grains may be stored as follows:

  • Open (uncontrolled) environment e.g. storage in sacks, bins, barns, and cribs.
  • Controlled environment e.g. storage in cold storage facilities and silos.

Rice grains may be stored in jute sacks, polyethylene sacks, drums etc. Rice grains stored in sacks should be kept on wooden pallets. 

Store in bins, barns, cribs, cold storage. Stacking of paddy in storage should be done in a way that allows for proper ventilation and inspection, to detect deterioration and other storage problems.

Please note that grains harvested by panicles could be stored directly in the barns if the moisture content is between 12-14%.

Apply Gastoxin (phostoxin) or any approved pesticide to control storage pests if the grain will be kept for a long time. Store in a cool and dry place, and ensure regular inspection (to check for roof leakages etc.)



Key Risks Along Rice Value Chain and Mitigation Measures

Value Chain ActionsKey Risks and ChallengesMitigation Measures

Input Supply





Recycling of seeds leading to

  • low yields
  • unmet consumer /buyer demands


- Training on Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs).

- Use improved and certified seeds and agro-input for production.

- Develop more improved materials to meet market demands.

Seed quality (lack of homogenous seeds of demanded varieties) leading to poor patronage by consumers/producers

- Use improved and certified seeds and agro-input for production.

- Develop more improved materials to meet farmer and market  demands.

- Adopt Good Agronomic Practices (GAPs).

Lack of knowledge among farmers and improper application of agro-inputs- Training on Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs). 

Limited access to finance



- Government to link registered producers and processors to funding sources

- Support actors especially producers and processors with good business plans with loans to expand the scale of production.  






Low farm mechanization in production. 

Inefficiencies in performing certain cultural practices

- Pre-planning activities to identify and take advantage of mechanization services.

- Follow GAPs and adopt using simple farm machinery.

- Revisit block farming and support farmers to reduce cost of  land development.


Pests and diseases attack 

  • Avian risk- Birds especially Quelea quelea a granivorous pest causes substantial loss.
Male Quelea (Weaver) bird
Quelea quelea lathamii (weaver bird, red-billed quelea); adult female. Botswana. February, 2008.
Female Quelea (Weaver) bird

- Training on Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs).

- Pay attention to early warning systems.

- Apply recommended agro-chemicals.

  • bird scarers (e.g. noise-making devices, whips, shouting), visual (scarecrows, flags, reflective tape) and physical measures (e.g. throwing rocks or mud)
  • use of nets or repellents
  • use of explosives or flamethrowers
  • good agronomic practices such as vegetation management, good weed management (as weeds attract birds), specific planning of the production season and choosing a variety with bird-resistant characteristics.
Climate change and effect on water systems in production areas

- Adopt Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs).

- Pay attention to early warning systems.

- Use climate-smart improved rice varieties.


Land tenure system and non-availability of arable land for commercial farming


- Proper demarcation of agriculture lands to support large scale production.

- Revisit block farming to reduce the cost of land development.

- Support to entrepreneur to go into large scale production.

- Government support on input subsidy should also target large scale producers.

- Improve land tenure system.

Post-harvest handlingPoor post-harvest infrastructure

- Set up storage facilities in major rice growing areas.

-Undertake effective grading and sorting.

- Establish strong linkages between producers, processors and industrial consumers.




Ineffective transfer of market information to stimulate product improvements

- Frequent information sharing among actors.

- Encourage actors to subscribe to platforms that share market information.


Poor quality and limited market penetration of domestic rice production


- Embark on a massive campaign for the consumption of local rice.

- Promote popular local varieties to meet demands.

- Create a favourable investment climate with attractive tax regimes.


Obsolete equipment for rice processing leading to poor finished products.



- Needs assessment of processors.

- Government to support processors/millers acquire improved milling and processing equipment to produce quality rice for the market.

- AMSECs to create support for small-scale processors.


Increasing preference of foreign rice over the local owing to poor quality of the latter


- Training in Good Agricultural and processing practices.

- support processors with good processing equipment.

- Create a favourable investment climate with attractive tax regimes.

OtherHigh level of government involvement (input subsidization, market support etc.)

- Government and producers to engage in contract production.

- Follow-up and monitoring of fields.



Pests & Diseases, Symptoms and Control Measures

Major Pest of Rice and their Control Measures

PestDamageManagement/Control Measures

1. Stem Borer


  • Stunted growth in rice
  • Yellowish and dried leaves
  • Whitish grains


  • Plough rice stubble into soil to kill larvae and pupae
  • Avoid leaving unwanted rations.
  • Apply appropriate insecticides when deemed necessary.

2. Stalk eyed fly
  • This kind of fly with black head, called “Diopsis Thoracica’’ lays eggs which grows into larvae later.
  • These larvae attack the seedlings. This takes place mainly during dry season.
  • Keep good farm sanitation.
  • Increase the quantity of water in the field once the first symptoms of attack by the larvae are confirmed.
  • Use specific product to fight against the fly, preferably a product containing pyrethrin.


3. Rodents (rats, mouse, grasscutter)

  • Visible destruction of the plants especially when the farm is not flooded.


  • Rats damage rice plants on the field and can reduce the yield up to 20%.
  • Keep good farm sanitation
  • Use rat traps, baits, and predators
  • Rodenticides


  • Sucking of milk during tasseling (shooting of rice), and feeding on the grain before harvest.


  • Various birds eg quelea birds feed on rice grains in the field and reduce the yield by 25-30%.



  • Planting on time and usage of healthy seedlings from resistant varieties. E.g. varieties with sharp leaves and awns on which birds cannot stand.
  • Bird scaring (using devices or humans).
  • Nets (small scale farms).
  • Physical observation of birds on the farm.

5. Green leaf hoppers/ Grasshoppers

Injects toxic secretions and transmits several viruses

  • Loss of sap from grains
  • Partial to pronounced yellowing in rice plant
  • Stunted growth in rice plant
  • Wilting to death of plants
  • Patchiness in infested areas



  • Using resistant varieties
  • Applying suitable insecticides

6. Rice Bugs

Pests suck vegetative parts and grains

Brown lesions in infested grains
  • Use resistant/tolerant varieties.
  • Dusting or spraying with appropriate insecticides especially against the nymphs (as a last resort).



Major Diseases of Rice and their Control Measures

DiseasesSymptomsManagement/Control Measures

1.Bacterial Blight

Bacterial blight is caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) and affects the rice plant at the seedling stage. The disease occurs in both tropical and temperate environments, particularly in irrigated and rainfed lowland areas. 

Affects the rice plant at the seedling stage.

It is commonly observed when strong winds and continuous heavy rains occur. The disease is severe in susceptible rice varieties that are treated with high nitrogen fertilizer.

  • Leaves turn greyish green and roll-up.
  • Yellowish to straw-coloured in leaves.
  • Wilting and drying up of seedlings.
  • Use resistant or tolerant varieties.
  • Avoid all host materials.
  • Use appropriate Nitrogen fertilizer.
  • Avoid flooding.


2. The Rice Blast

This disease is transmitted by a fungus called Pyricularia oryzae, which attacks the whole plant: leaves, stem, flowers and even seeds. They are visible especially during the rainy season or in wet conditionsThe disease is particularly severe in the nursery, and at flowering stage. Chemical fertilizers with a high concentration of nitrogen worsen the situation.

  • Greyish spots appear on stems and ears
  • In seedbeds, the seedlings dry out.
  • Planting on time
  • Usage of healthy seedlings from resistant varieties
  • Applying chemical fertilizers in moderate quantity
  • Keeping of surrounding area clean
  • Mobilize sufficient water towards the field
  • Treat seeds with an appropriate chemical before sowing in the seedbed
  • Treating disease once identified

3.Rice Yellow Mottle Virus (RYMV)

Rice Yellow Mottle Virus (RYMV) is endemic and largely restricted to the African continent, where it has been found in most of the rice-growing countries.

Rice Yellow Mottle Virus (RYMV) is transmitted by several species of insects, cows, rats, and donkeys. Insect vectors that feed on infected wild rice usually invade and infect newly established crops or seedlings in a nursery. Rice plants, alternate hosts, ratoon or stubbles that grow between cropping seasons, allow the continuous survival of the pathogen. RYMV can also be mechanically transmitted through the inter-plant movement of sap (irrigation water, guttation water, and contact between infected and healthy plant tissues and crop residues).

The virus can also be found on roots of infected plants and can infect plants through injured roots.

  • Yellow-green oblong to linear spots seen on the base of young leaves
  • Yellow or orange streaks appear on leaf veins
  • Stunted growth in infected plants
  • Reduced tillers, sterile spikelets are observed
  • Yellow stripes and spots may be seen on infected plants
  • Use resistant varieties
  • Practice crop rotation
  • Rogueing and burning of infected plants, especially when the infection is still low,
  • Regular weeding during the cropping season and even after harvest to reduce sources of primary inoculum.


4.Bacterial Leaf Streak
  • Fine translucent streak occurs between veins of leaves
  • Translucent streak enlarges and coalesces, turning light brown then greyish-white
  • Drying up of leaves then eventually dies.
  • Planting on time
  • Usage of healthy seedlings from resistant varieties
  • Application of chemical fertilizers in moderate quantity.
  • Maintain clean surrounding
  • Treat seeds with an appropriate chemical before sowing in the seedbed.
  • Treat the disease once it is identified, using recommended chemicals.


Market Information on Rice

Some key players involved in rice production and trade includes Olam Ghana,  Brazil Agro-Business Group, Avnash Industries, etc. There is high interest from investors in rice production due to the significant potential that exists in import substitution to serve the domestic market. The Indian group Avnash Industries Ghana Ltd. has set up three rice mills in Tamale, Bolgatanga, and Pombussi, with a combined capacity of 5.4 million metric tons of rice per year. The company is looking to contract farmers on an out-grower basis to supply rice to their processing facilities. In the short term, GADCO in the Volta Region is an attractive partner given their robust commercial model and the importance of smallholders for their commercial goals.

Price Trends

The Ghana National annual average nominal wholesale market price for a ton of Rice as at  2021 was GHS4,691.50 whiles the annual real price was GHS3,619.98. Prices shot up from 2018 in both nominal and real terms.

SRID, MoFA                         A Rebased CPI with 2012 constant prices 

Imported rice, overall, is generally expensive than the local but provides greater variety which seemed more affordable than domestically produced varieties. The local rice (parboiled, white, and brown) is perceived to have higher nutritional qualities but is less preferred by most consumers due to perceived poor quality. Nonetheless, the government has created the demand for the envisaged increase in domestic rice production by linking it to the School Feeding Programme of the public second cycle institutions nationwide through the guaranteed purchases by the reinvigorated National Food Buffer Stock Company (NAFCO) particularly for supplying to School Feeding Programme.

The Ministry of Food and Agriculture's Statistics, Research, and Information Directorate gathers regular pricing data from selected wholesale and retail markets, including domestic and imported rice. Retail prices are given in kilograms, import wholesale prices in 50kg increments, and local wholesale prices in 100kg increments. In Figure 2, all prices are converted to per kilogram comparison purposes.

Figure 1: Average Wholesale Price of Rice


Over the period 2015 to 2020 on average, the wholesale price for imported rice is about one-third higher than the local price over this period, which mostly reflects quality discrepancies or customers' willingness to pay a premium for what is deemed a superior product.

Figure 2: Retail Prices of Local Rice


Ghana relies heavily on imported rice to compensate for a shortfall in local rice supplies.  As indicated in Figure 3, Ghana spent approximately $283 million on rice imports in 2022. There is, therefore there is the need to ensure a sustainable increase in domestic production of good quality rice for food security, import substitution and savings in foreign exchange.

 Figure 3: Rice Import

World Prices for Various Imported Rice 2000-2022

World Bank Pink Sheet
World Bank Pink Sheet
World Bank Pink Sheet
World Bank Pink Sheet


Enterprise Budget for Rice

Coastal Savannah - Crop Budget (Transplanting For 1 Hectare) /Guinea Savannah - Crop Budget 2019 (Irrigated) for 1 Hectare - 5 Tonnes Average








Non-Selective herbicide




Selective herbicide 
Basagran 480 SL2Litres57.00114.00
Mega Super3Litres45.00135.00






 Sub-Total   1,964.00




Land preparation 
8Bund repairs1Ha120.00120.00
9Nursery preparation1Ha150.00150.00
12Application of fertilizers1Ha150.00150.00
13Scaring of Birds30Days15.00450.00
 Sub-Total  2,320.00
14Combine harvesting1Ha1,000.001,000.00
15Low loader1Ha200.00200.00
16Sacks for paddy100Bags2.00200.00
17Nylon ropes1Bundle5.005.00
 Sub-Total   1,405.00
18Transportation (Carting of paddy to the drying floor)100Bags2.50250.00
19Drying of paddy4Days45.00180.00
20Winnowing of paddy1Ha90.0090.00
21Bagging of dried paddy90Bags1.0090.00
22Loading of paddy into the warehouse90Bags2.00180.00
 Sub-Total  142.50790.00
 Total  6,479.00 (A)
 5% Contingency  323.95
 Total Cost of Production 6,802.95
 Total Revenue50 bags/Ha bagsGHȼ 360 per 100 kg18,000 (B)
 Net Revenue (A-B)                                                           11,197.05


All Agro-ecologies - Crop Budget (Broadcasting for 1 Ha) - 2.5 Tonnes Average (2019)

Total weedicide/ 1 litre354140
Labour for spraying154120
1st Harrowing1502300
Rotovating 1st and 2nd1502300
Transplanting Labour   
Cost of fertilizer application and carting25381 (GHȼ 6 extra)
Labour cost for crop protection measures15460
Irrigation Service Charge (ISC)802.5200
Bund weeding/ length30 2.575
Scaring (5/acre)200 (5 * 40)2.5500
Labour cost for harvesting602.5150
Carting produce to the drying floor602.5150
Seed80 kg2.5200
Insecticide (Karate)15230
Fungicide (Nativo)2601260
Selective Weedicide (Bisrice)502100
Sub Total4,036 (A)
5% Miscellaneous201.8
Sub Total4,237.8 (B)
Total RevenueGHȼ 360 per 100 kg 25 bags/ha9,000 (B)
Net revenue (A-B) 4,237.80


Key Policies and Programmes


There are favourable Government Policies supporting the market growth of rice in the country. Ghana is a net importer of rice. However, the Government of Ghana has brought many structural changes in its policies favouring the regional development of grains to boost domestic production by reducing the imports.  

In 2017, the government introduced a 50% subsidy on rice and some selected grains as well as fertilizer to spur domestic rice and maize production. With this, the government is intended to reduce its rice imports by 10% by close of 2020. The Ghana Grains Council in collaboration with various stakeholders is bringing a standardized pricing policy to promote competitiveness in the grain industry of Ghana. Further, the council is partnering with companies such as Fully integrated Financial and Commodities Ecosystem (FinComEco) to develop a range of projects and initiatives in the agricultural commodity sector, especially grains.

Ghana Grains Market: Major Government Initiatives

Regulatory and Policy Environment

The following are some policies and regulatory framework for the production and trade of rice in Ghana:

  • 20% import duty, taxes and fees making it more expensive to import rice into Ghana.
  • Rice is one of the commodities, purchased by the National Food Buffer Stock Company (NAFCO), operating since 2010, to build its operational and emergency stocks.
  • Policy interventions on input subsidies (seed, fertilizer, machinery).
  • Rice sub-sector development approach is driven by the National Rice Development Strategy (NRDS) of 2009.
  • The NRDS to support the production and processing of rice and make the value chain competitive.
  • Through the support of Coalition for African Rice Development (CARD), certified seeds that have demonstrated high performance in the Ghanaian environment is available to farmers through the research institutions.
  • The Directorate of Crop Services is responsible for policy formulation and development of programmes and projects that will promote sustainable crop production systems whilst ensuring the conservation of the environment.
  • Food and Agricultural Sector Development Policy (FASDEP II) pays attention to developments along the rice value chain through four initiatives:

               - subsidization of agricultural mechanization services by supporting the establishment and operation of Agricultural Mechanization Service Centres (AMSEC);

  - subsidization of fertilizers through the National Fertilizer Subsidy Programme;

    - establishment and management of Block Farms through subsidies for mechanization services and inputs (fertilizers, improved            seed, and pesticides) as well as extension services;  

       - stabilization of output prices via the establishment and operation of the National Food Buffer Stock Company (NAFCO).  

Ghana’s National Rice Development Strategy (G-NRDS) (2009-2018) aims to contribute to national food security, increased income, and reduced poverty. The objectives of the NRDS include:  

  • Increasing domestic production by 10 percent annually using gender-sensitive and productivity-enhancing innovations for smallholders, commercial rice producers, and entrepreneurs along the value chain;
  • Promoting the consumption of local rice through quality improvement by targeting both domestic and sub-regional markets;
  • Enhancing the capacity of stakeholders to utilize rice by-products, thus contributing to sound environmental management practices;
  • Promoting dialogue among rice stakeholders within the value chain towards building efficient information sharing and linkage.



The table below shows a list of projects and programmes that have run and or are still running to support the upscale of local rice production in the country.

Rice-Related Projects/Programme

No.Name of the Project/Project component DurationArea of Intervention
1Ghana Agricultural Sector Investment Programme (GASIP)2015-2021All the regionsValue Chain of various crops developed
2Sustainable Development of Rain-fed Lowland Rice Production 2009-2014Northern and Ashanti regionsTechnical package of improved rain fed lowland rice developed, verification of methodology & extension procedure developed
3Sustainable Development of Rain-fed Lowland Rice Production, Phase 22016 – 2021Northern & Ashanti regionsVerification of methodology & Extension procedure fine-tuned and disseminated 
4Enhancing Market-Based  Agriculture by small holders and private sector linkage2016-2021Kpong Irrigation SchemeSeveral farmers linked to market for their produce
5Promoting a sustainable increase in rice production and productivity of small and medium-scale farmers through PPP2016 – 2017North TonguInstitutional capacity and business model built; improved rice production technology adopted
6Rice Sector Support Project (RSSP) 2009 – 2016Northern, Upper East, Upper West & Volta regions 6000 ha of land developed
7Financing the Development of Agric value chain2015- All RegionsSeveral off-takers and out-growers the rain-fed smallholders empowered with finance
8Export Development & Agric Investment  Funds (EDAIF) Sponsored Rice Project2014-2016Northern, Upper East, Upper West & Volta regions About 10,000 farmers empowered to improve productivity
9Rice Seed Support Programme2013-2017Northern & VoltaFree CS delivered to farmers
10Nerica Rice Development Project (NRDP)2005 to 2010Northern, Middle & Volta
  • Annual Income of 241,000 families increased,
  • 54,000t of Nerica rice seed produced
11Study on improvement of micro reservoir technologies for enhancement of rice production in Africa2014 - 2016Northern & Ashanti regionsDevelopment of low-cost construction techniques for micro reservoirs for a substantial increase in agricultural productivity 
12Ghana Commercial Agriculture Project2012 - 2019Northern Ghana (SADA zone) & Accra PlainsPromoting inclusive commercial farming along selected commodity value chain
13Savannah Zone Agricultural Productivity Improvement Project2018 - 2022SADA zoneTransform agricultural value chains for food and nutrition security, job and wealth creation
14Improvement of rice value chain in Central Region2019 -2023Central RegionValue chain development 
15Public-Private Partnership for Competitive & Inclusive Rice Value Chain Development: Planting for Food and Jobs (PFJ) - Rice Chapter2018 - 2021Northern, Ashanti, Volta, Central, Brong Ahafo & Volta regionsValue chain development 
16Enhanced Access to Quality Rice Seed Initiative2014 - 2015Nationwide Provision of seed and fertilizers to promotion to use of improved seed (AGRA Rice seed)
17Planting for Food and Jobs2017 - To dateNationwideSubsidized inputs (seed & fertilizer), Extension support, creation of market avenues and data collection
18Competitive African Rice Initiative2016 - 2020Upper East, Northern, Volta, Greater Accra and Central regionsImprove livelihood of rice farmers 
19Green Innovation Centre2015 - 2022Brong Ahafo, Ashanti, Volta & EasternIncrease productivity along the value chain, create jobs and improve the livelihoods of rural communities 


Rice Growing Seasons and Cropping Cycle


Soil Suitability Map for Rice

CSIR- Soil Research