Ghana: Sheep and Goats

Sheep & Goats Summary Fact Sheet

 Production
National output (2016 to 2019)
  • Mutton:
    • 21,349 Mt (2016)
    • 26,134 Mt (2017)
    • 26,716 Mt (2018)
    • 23,999 Mt (2019)
    • 24,948 Mt (2020)
  • Chevon:
    • 26,285 Mt (2016)
    • 27,889 Mt (2017)
    • 28,727 Mt (2018)
    • 30,278 Mt (2019)
    • 31,902 Mt (2020)

Source: Agricultural Facts & Figures – SRID/MoFA

Total Population National (2016 to 2019)
  • Sheep:
    • 1,744,000 (2016)
    • 4,978,000 (2017)
    • 5,102,000 (2018)
    • 5,333,000 (2019)
    • 5,544,000 (2020)
  • Goats:
    • 6,740,000 (2016)
    • 7,151,000 (2017)
    • 7,366,000 (2018)
    • 7,764,000 (2019)
    • 8,180,000 (2020)

Source: Agricultural Facts & Figures – SRID - MoFA

Production Cycle
  • Sheep
    • Gestation: 155 days  
    • Weaning: 3 months  
    • Ready for sale: 10 – 12 months  
  • Goat:
    • Gestation: 145 days  
    • Weaning: 3 months  
    • Ready for sale: 10 – 12 months  
Suitable Time to Raise the Animal
  • All Year Round
Space Allowance (Stock Density) per Animal
  • Cemented floor
    • Bred Ewe/Nanny: 1.1 – 1.5 m2(12-16 ft2)
    • Ewe/Nanny with Lambs / Kids: 1.5 – 1.9 m2 (16 – 20 ft2)
    • Ram/ Buck: 1.9 – 2.8 m2 (20 – 30 ft2)
    • Feeder Lamb / Kid: 0.74 – 0.93 m2 (8 – 10 ft2)
  • Slated Floor
    • Bred Ewe/Nanny: 0.74 - 0.93 m2 (8 - 10 ft2)
    • Ewe/Nanny with Lambs / Kids: 0.93 - 1.1 m2 (10 - 12 ft2)
    • Ram / Buck: 1.3 - 1.9 m2 (14 - 20 ft2)
    • Feeder Lamb / Kid: 0.37 - 0.6 m2 (4 - 6 ft2)

(Source: APD - MoFA)

Production Costs per Weight of Animal Produced (GH ¢ / Kg)
  • 10.16 cedis per kilo live weight

        Source: APD - MoFA

Liveweight of Animal at Slaughter (Kg)
  • Sheep
    • Male: 25 – 30 kg
    • Female: 20 – 25 kg
  • Goat
    • Male: 20 – 25 kg
    • Female: 18 – 20 kg

Source: APD - MoFA

Type(s) of Feed Used for Production
  • Small ruminants are herbivores hence they are mainly fed with grass.  
  • They are also fed with supplementary feed from agro-by products;
    • Wheat bran 
    • Spent malt 
    • Rice straw
    • Maize/Sorghum stover
    • Groundnut/Cowpea vines 
    • Dried cassava peels
Feeding Rate -Feed Intake, (g/animal/day)
  • Rams: 1.6% of body weight of Dry matter
  • Ewe (Breeding and Lactating): 1.6 – 5% of body weight of Dry matter
  • Lamb for Market (Fatteners): 1.5 – 6% of body weight of Dry matter  

 

 

Acceptable Mortality Rate per Production Cycle
  • 5 percent   (Source: APD - MoFA)
Fertility Rate of Nanny/Ewe
  • 80%  (Source: APD - MoFA)
Kidding / Lambing / Year
  • 1.7

        Source: APD - MoFA

Litter Size (20% Twining)
  • 1.2

       Source: APD - MoFA

 Budget Benchmarks
Estimated Ave. Costs of Establishment/ Year (GH ¢) 2020
  • 27,725.00 (for 50 animals)
Estimated Ave. Revenue / Year (GH ¢) 2020
  • 58,667.14
Estimated Ave. Gross Margins / Year (GH ¢) 2020
  • 30,942.14

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General Overview of Small Ruminants (Sheep & Goats) Production

 

Small Ruminants (Sheep and goats) have good adaptation to many different climates hence they are widely distributed in Ghana. These farm animals are a good source of protein for the populace. The patronage of sheep and goat meat is high in the country due to its acceptance by people from all walks of life.  

Compared to cattle, sheep and goats reproduce rapidly and build up herd/flock numbers quickly. Their small sizes and relatively low cost of production make them a good option for people with low initial capital and limited land resources. Small ruminants can be raised in rural, urban and peri-urban areas under simple production practices and techniques.  

Breeds in Ghana

Table 1: Characteristics of sheep

BreedUtilityDescription
West African Forest Sheep or the Djallonk√© Mutton

Adult males weight approximately 37 kg. They have a well-developed throat ruff and are horned. Ewes have mature weights of 25 kg. The females are usually polled. They can be bred at the age of 7 to 8 months.

 

They tend to have a short lambing interval. The prolificacy of adult ewes is low to moderate ranging from 1.15 to 1.50 lambs per lambing. At less than 100 g per day under good feed conditions, their growth rate is low and lamb mortality is high. This breed is also trypanotolerant.

The Sahelian sheepMutton

 

Sahel-type sheep

Sahel-type sheep are also known as: Fulani, Peul, Bali-Bali, Maure, Tuareg, Guinea Long-legged, Sahelian, West African Long-legged. When compared to the West African Dwarf, the main difference is that the Sahel-type sheep are taller, heavier, of poor mutton conformation and rams do not have a throat ruff or mane. Mature ewes weigh over 35 kg (77 lb).

 

Table 2: Characteristics of Goat

West African Dwarf (WADMilk and meat
Phenotypic and genetic characterization of qualitative ...

In Ghana, the most predominant small ruminant livestock genetic resource is the West African Dwarf (WAD) goat with an estimated population of about 6,044,000 as against 4,335,000 for sheep according to the Ghana Livestock Development Policy and Strategy. The breed possesses desirable traits such as hardiness/adaptability, relatively high prolificacy, precociousness and trypanotolerance.

West African Dwarf goats are capable of breeding at twelve to eighteen months. The kidding interval averages about 220 days. Adult males weigh 20 to 25 kg (44 to 55 lb) and females 18 to 22 kg (40 to 49 lb). Both sexes have horns, which curve outwards and backwards in males. Males also have beards and sometimes manes

Sahelian Goat Meat, milk and skin production
Image result for picture of the sahel goat

They are thin in appearance with narrow body, shallow chest and sloping short croup. They have stiff short hair with variety of colors. Average height of the adult Sahelian buck is about 70–85 cm, and 65–75 cm for does. The bucks on average weight about 38.5 to 56.7 kg, and average weight of the does is about 25 to 34 kg. Sahelian goats are very strong and hardy animals. First kidding occurs usually about 18 months of age and their lactation period is usually 5–6 months.

Who knew goats were so devastatingly photogenic?

 

 

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Value Chain Actors and Linkages in Ghana

Value Chain Actors and Linkages

 

Input Suppliers

These actors are involved in the supply of animals for breeding/ fattening, provision of animal health services, drugs, feed, equipment etc.  Veterinary services are generally available in both organized livestock markets to combat animal diseases. The Ministry of Food and Agriculture does make government veterinarians available to small ruminant producers in most parts of the country, but there are obstacles to the needed growth in private sector veterinary services.

Small Ruminant Farmers

This group of actors are the major suppliers of chevon/mutton for processing and consumption. Most of these farmers practice semi intensive system of production and sell live animals to traders whilst others provide slaughter facilities and supply the meat directly to chevon/mutton retailers and supermarkets.  

Small Ruminant Traders

They are market agents who go round farms and aggregate the animals and send to the slaughter slabs. Some of the traders own or rent holding pens for the animals on sale. Others sell directly to processors and retailers.

Processors

These are varied and mostly informal. The first line of processors is the slaughter slab operator and secondary processors who further add value to chevon/mutton for consumption.  The value added in the processing of small ruminants mainly occurs in the meat sector and in hides and skins. There is little intra-regional trade in meat due to the absence of refrigerated trucks or rail cars and major problems in cold chain assurance. The milk sector is mainly oriented around cow’s milk, with sheep and goat milk mostly not marketed and consumed in the producers’ homes, considered essential for nourishing children. 

Chevon/Mutton Retailers (Marketers)

This group of actors select animals from aggregators at the slaughter slabs for slaughtering and supply to restaurants, hotels, food vendors and individuals whilst others roast (kebab) or prepare food (chopbar) and sell to individual consumers.

Consumers

These are individual and institutional consumers who buy fresh meat from butchers and supermarkets or processed meat for consumption.

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Key Husbandry Practices and Their Importance

Key Good Husbandry Practices

Key Good Husbandry Practice

 

Brief Description and Importance

Breeds

West African Dwarf Sheep
Sahelian Sheep
West African Dwarf Goat
Sahelian Goat

Source;https://news.ilri.org/2017/08/16/wagoats-lifetime-performance https://www.pinterest.com/pin 

Sheep - The dominant breed in the country is the West African forest or the Djallonk√© and the Sahelian sheep.

The Djallonke is:

  • Hardy (highly adapted to the local climate).
  • Trypano tolerant (high tolerance for ruminant to trypanosomiasis).
  • More tolerant to heartwater disease
  • Prolific.
  • Suitable for all year-round breeding.
  • Mostly found in the south and middle belt.
  • About 25-30kg in weight (adult male) and about 20-25 kg in weight (adult female).

The Sahelian sheep is:

  • Mostly found in Northern Ghana and the peri-urban areas of the south
  • Larger and long-legged compared to the Djallonke.
  • More susceptible to some diseases which the Djallonke has high tolerance.

NB: In order to combine the positive traits of the two breeds, some small ruminant producers keep crosses of the Djallonke and the Sahelian sheep.

 Goats – Prominent breeds of goats in Ghana are West African Dwarf (WAD) and the Sahelian with similar production behavior like the sheep. The adult male however weighs 20-26 kg and the female about 18-24 kg.

Djallonké/West Africa Dwarf Goat:

  • Hardy (highly adapted to the local climate).
  • Trypano tolerant (high tolerance for ruminant to trypanosomiasis).
  • More tolerant to heartwater disease

Sahelian Goat:

  • Commonly found in sahelian countries
  • Larger and long-legged compared to the Djallonke.
  • More susceptible to tropical small ruminant diseases.

Breeding Stock Selection

 

  • Select 1 male to 10 - 20 females which are at least a year old. The male must be bigger than the female.
  • Select animals with good body condition (bright eyes, alert and shiny hair / coat).
  • Avoid deformed animals (limping, abscess/swelling, sour mouth, pink eye, and discharge from any of the natural openings).

   Ram/Buck

  1. Age – 1 to 2 years of age
  2. Well grown and muscular (good body conformation)
  3. Two healthy and well-developed good size testicles
  4. Well-developed mane
  5. Should possess crescent horns

  

Gimmers 

  1. Age – 1 year
  2. Healthy, well-formed, and good size udder with functional teats
  3. Strong legs
Site Selection

Factors to consider in selecting a site for goat/sheep production include the following:

  • Distance to neighbouring residences – 1 – 2 km.
  • Close to a regular source of water.
  • The land should have a slope of about 2 to 5 percent (gradient) for good drainage.
  • Sandy loam soil.
  • Easily accessible.
Construction of House

Basic requirements for a standard housing

  • Positioning of the housing should be oriented length wise in the East to West direction (ie. against the direction of the sun rise and set) to allow for good shade, ventilation and air circulation within the house.
  • Provide dip for control of ecto-parasites.
  • Provide footbaths and changing rooms for workers and visitors. (Bio-security)
  • Provide different sections/compartments within the structure (to house the breeding stock, growing animals and sick animals separately).
  • The house must be structured in a form that movement of humans as well as animals is from the section of young animals to older ones and not the other way round.
  • The house must be well secured to prevent undesirable elements such as vectors (pests, rodents and insects) and robbers from entering.
  • Floor should neither be smooth nor very rough to harbour pathogens or hamper cleaning.
  • Floor must slope towards the drainage outlet of the pen for easy flow of liquid substances.

 

Facilities required in a Standard Housing

  • Delivery area (calving )
  • Nursing area (Ewe/Nanny and calve/young one)
  • Weaner/Grower/Fattener area
  • Buck/Ram area
  • Ewe/Nanny area (dry/breeding animal)
  • Isolation pen
  • Water and feed troughs
  • Store house
Space requirement Space Requirement
Class, Age and Size of AnimalBarn/Shed
Floor Area per AnimalHeight of WallHeight of Ceiling (from ground)
Dry Ewes

12 - 20 ft2

(1.1 - 1.8 m2)

4 ft

(121.9 cm)

8 - 10 ft

(243.8 - 304.8 cm)

Ewes with Lambs

15 - 22 ft2

(1.4 - 2.0 m2)

4 ft

(121.9 cm)

8 - 10 ft

(243.8 - 304.8 cm)

Stud rams

20 - 30 ft2

(1.8 - 2.8 m2)

4 ft

(121.9 cm)

8 - 10 ft

(243.8 - 304.8 cm)

Lambs, young ram, gimmers

10 - 12 ft2

(0.9 - 1.1)

4 ft

(121.9 cm)

8 - 10 ft

(243.8 - 304.8 cm)

Other Facilities

Foot bath; to prevent transfer of disease pathogens to pen by workers and visitors

Changing rooms; for workers and visitors.  

A dip; to enhance periodic control of ecto-parasites.  

Delivery area; an area designed to house expectant pregnant animals to enhance safe delivery.

Nursing area; an area designed to separate the nursing mother and its young ones from the rest of the flock to give them special care until weaning.

Weaner/Grower/Fattener area; an area created to house large numbers of weaners/growers/fatteners for sale.

Buck/Ram pen; an area set aside to house breeding males to help control breeding.    

Ewe/Nanny area; an area set aside to house breeding females to help control breeding.      

Isolation pen; space designated for sick animals to avoid the spread of infectious diseases and also allow appropriate medication. NB: It must be separated from the main housing facility.  

Quarantine or holding pen; an area set aside for holding newly acquired stock. NB: It must be separated from the main housing facility.  

Store house; space created for storage of feed/feed ingredients, drugs and tools/equipment. NB: Pallets and shelves must be provided in the store.

Equipment

Livestock Weighing Scale

Source; https://www.smidley.com/images/products/hog_scale_enlarged_view.jpg)

  • Feeding trough; to hold feed for the stock
  • Watering trough; to hold drinking water for the stock
  • Weighing Scale; to weigh animals
  • Hoof Cutter; to trim hooves of stock
  • Ear Tags/Applicator; to tag stock for easy identification
  • Burdizzo; to castrate males which will not be used for breeding

 

Feed and Feeding Regime

Concrete water trough for small ruminant
Wooden Feed trough for Small Ruminant

Source; https://www.thespruce.com/thmbhttps://agritech.tnau.ac.in/expert-system/sheepgoat

https://www.pinterest.com/3364330346511658571

Type of Feed: Pasture/fodder, Agro by products, Concentrate.

 

Pasture: Grasses and Legumes

Grasses:

  • Panicum maximum (guinea grass)
  • Penisetum pepurium (elephant grass),
  • Cynodon nlemfuensis (giant star grass)
  • Cenchrus ciliaris (buffel grass)
  • Brachiaria decumbens (signal grass)

 

Legumes:

  • Leucaena leucocephala (Ipil-Ipil)
  • Centrosema pubescence (centro)
  • Dolichos lablab (lalab beans)
  • Gliricidia sepium (quickstick)
  • Stylosanthes hamata (stylo)

 

Agro by products:

  • Wheat bran
  • Spent malt
  • Rice straw
  • Maize/sorghum stover
  • Groundnut/cowpea vines
  • Cassava peels

 

These pasture species can be planted as pure stand or mixture (grass x legume) and harvested/cut for animals under intensive rearing of grazed directly by animals under semi - intensive system.

 

Feed intake:

  • Rams : 1.6% of body weight of Dry matter
  • Ewe (breeding and lactating) : 1.6 – 5% of body weight of Dry matter
  • Lamb for market (fatteners) : 1.5 – 6% of body weight of Dry matter

 

Always provide salt-vitamin-mineral premix (salt lick) for small ruminants

 

Medication/ vaccination Regime

 

Source; https://www.premier1supplies.com/sheep-guide

Disease prevention measures are key for any successful small ruminant production enterprise. Regular cleaning of pens as well as vaccination of the flock against scheduled diseases such as Peste Des Petits Ruminants (PPR) and Anthrax is required. 

Below is a table of some disease prevention measures and vaccination regime in small ruminant production.

 Vaccination regime and Disease Prevention for Small Ruminants

Programme

 

Vaccine/drugAgePeriod

Vaccination

Peste Des Petits Ruminants(PPR)

 

 

 

Anthrax

 

Consult the Vet.

 

 

 

 

Consult the Vet.

 

3 months upwards

 

 

 

6 months upwards

 

a) February to March

b) November to December. In very endemic areas repeat after six months.

 

Once a year

 

DewormingConsult the Vet.As an when necessary (consult the Vet. officer)

a) Regularly for 6months-1yr old

b) Regularly (consult the local Vet officer) 

DippingConsult the Vet.6 Months upwards(consult the Vet. officer)

Monthly during wet season

Quarterly during dry season

Heat Detection

Heat is the period when the female will allow mating. A healthy mature non pregnant animal comes on heat every 17 – 21 days.

Animals on heat exhibits the following signs:

  • Wagging of tail
  • Slightly red and swollen vulva
  • Continuous bleating and restless behaviour
  • Mounting of other animals
  • Provocative urination in the presence of the male
  • Stands still for the male to mount it

Mating/Servicing  

Source;https://www.livestocking.net/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/Goat-Mating.jpg

Animals exhibiting heat signs can be served during 24 – 36 hours after the onset of heat.  

Flush ewes/does for about 2 weeks before mating time to increase conception rate.

 

 

Gestation

Gestation is the period between conception and birth and it takes 140 -145 days for goats and 150 – 155 days for sheep.  

During gestation the animal must:

  • Not be disturbed to avoid any possible abortion.
  • Be feed well (with plenty of protein and minerals especially during the last six weeks of the pregnancy)
  • Be given more attention.
  • Not be tethered to prevent abortion

Parturition/Birth

Source; https://www.farmhealthonline.com/disease-management

Confirm time of parturition/birth with these signs:

  • Swelling of the vulva and udder for about 2 - 3 days.
  • Restlessness standing and lying down intermittently.
  • Goes off feed and water.
  • Very tense udder.
  • Sniffing at kids around.
  • Isolation from the herd.
  • Slimy vaginal secretion which hangs like a thread.

 

The farmer must:

  • Provide adequate bedding materials (dry straw) in the delivery pen.
  • Ensure that the nose and mouth of the kid/lamb is free of mucus after delivery.
  • Help the lamb/kid to suckle the colostrum (which is the first milk containing antibodies against diseases).

Castration

Burdizzo 

With a burdizzo castrate young male, which will not be used for breeding after weaning at 3 months.

This prevents fighting among males and helps the non-breeding males to grow faster.

 

WeaningLambs/kids are weaned at 3 months old; to allow the mother come on heat for another cycle of reproduction.

Tagging

Source: JICA project
Tagging of animals is for easy identification and traceability. Tag animals before weaning.
CullingCull out unproductive and undesirable animals from the flock to maintain productivity.
Biosecurity Measures

Maintain the following biosecurity measures.  

  • Maintain a clean footbath.
  • Maintain clean feed and water troughs.
  • Practice regular pen cleaning and disinfection.
  • Control entry of visitors.
  • Maintain a clean environment.
  • Dispose of dead animals properly.
  • Remove used bedding material from pen regularly (quarterly).
  • Clear spider webs regularly and destroy bird, bats and other rodents’ hide-outs in the pen.
  • Trim hooves of animals regularly to avoid infection and injury.

 

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Key Risks Along The Value Chain

Key Risks Along the Value Chain and Mitigation Measures

Value Chain ActionsKey Risks and ChallengesMitigation Measures

Input Supply

 

Unavailability of quality breeding stock.
  • Existing Government breeder farms restocked and equipped to produce more breeding stock.
  • Encourage more entrepreneurs to set-up breeder farms.
Unavailability of prepared feed (concentrate) as supplementary feed.
  • Encourage existing feed millers to produce supplementary feed (concentrate) for small ruminant.
  • Train farmers to prepare feed for their stock.
Limited access and high cost of potent veterinary drugs.
  • License Veterinary technicians to operate drug shops in various communities.
  • Farmers could form cooperatives to buy inputs in bulk to store for regular supply to members.
Unavailability of potent vaccines in most districts.Resource Veterinary Services Directorate to produce vaccines locally.
Limited access to the services of animal production and veterinary officers.
  • Private production and veterinary services should be encouraged.
  • Community husbandry and animal health worker could be formed and trained to support farmers.
FinanceLimited equity capital and poor access to credit facilities
  • Encourage group formation to boost farmers’ capacity to access credit.
  • Encourage partnership and build capacity of farmers to raise equity capital.
High cost of capital.

Provide concessionary loan package for livestock farmers.

 

ProductionFrequent cases of mortality from plastic bag ingestion and poisoning
  • Promote semi-intensive system of small ruminant production.
  • Promote the establishment of fodder banks for grazing.
Losses from theft
  • Strong/secured livestock housing should be provided by farmers
Bad flock management/production techniques. Promote training/mentorship programme. 
Poor housing/wrongful siting of farm.Ensure strict guidance by Animal Production Expert.
Poor bio security systems.Design, train and enforce biosecurity measures.
MarketingUnavailability of effective standard pricing system.Encourage selling of live animals using live weight.
Lack of appropriate livestock market infrastructure.
  • Promote the construction of livestock markets.
  • Form farmer cooperatives to advocate for livestock markets in various communities.
Lack of appropriate transport facilities.Encourage private transporters to invest in this area.
ProcessingInadequate number of abattoirs. Provide financial incentives for entrepreneurs to set-up abattoirs. 
Lack of appropriate packaging of meat.Promote investment into meat processing and packaging.
Low quality of meat sold at retail level.Train processor on meat hygiene and quality and ensure strict adherence.
Lack of capital to invest in small to medium scale processing equipment. Train and support processors/farmers financially to acquire small to medium scale processing equipment. 
ConsumptionSophisticated consumer tasteTrain farmers and processors on consumer preference
Meat safety standards not adhered to.Train and enforce meat safety standards.

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Pests, Diseases, Symptoms and Control Measures

Pests and Diseases that Affect Small Ruminants

DiseaseSymptomControl Measures and Prevention

Pneumonia

 

 

Laboured breathing, coughing, nasal discharges, lacrimation, and anorexia.

NADIS - National Animal Disease Information Service
Treat with Oxytetracycline
   

Brucellosis

 

Abortions in late pregnancy and subsequently high rate of infertility

PDF] Brucellosis in small ruminants - a seroprevalence study ...

Affected animals are not treated but culled and destroyed.

 

Footrot

 

  • Inflammation of the skin-horn junction, under running of the horn.
  • Severe lameness

Treat with penicillin-streptomycin.

 

 

Anthrax Disease

 

Extreme dullness, high fever, widespread hemorrhages, dysentery and usually death within 48 hours.

Manual on meat inspection for developing countries
Prompt diagnosis, prevention of contamination, preferably by the deep burial of unopened carcases and disinfection of the immediate environment. Carried out annual vaccination.

Heartwater (Cowdriasis)

(Tick- borne non-infectious bacteria disease)

  • It is transmitted by Ticks.
  • Nervous, intestinal, and pulmonary disorders, caused by the rickettsia Cowdria ruminantium.
Acaricidal control of the vectors must be frequent and efficient

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Market Information

Market Information

Marketing may be considered as the heart-beat of any successful enterprise and it is equally important in small ruminant production. Most small ruminants consumed in Ghana are imported from neighboring countries. Farmers sell live animals to aggregators, butchers, “chop bar” operators and restaurants. However, few farmers sell processed meat to their clients.

It is important that prospective farmer considers the following:

  • Carefully research to be sure of where and how his product will be marketed.
  • Approach supermarkets, restaurant and chop bar operators, who may be viable clients.
  • Sell live animals using scales to prevent any possible losses

Small ruminants are normally sold to middlemen/aggregators who in turn transport them to secondary markets and sell to individuals and processors. In most cases, middlemen act as price brokers between traders and butchers. Few farmers sell processed meat to their clients.

Regional prices of per kilo Mutton/Chevon

SNREGIONPRICE (Gh ¢)/KILO
1Ashanti 30.00
2Greater Accra30.00
3Bono28.00
4Ahafo28.00
5Bono East28.00
6Central26.00
7Eastern24.00
8North East24.00
9Northern22.00
10Savanna24.00
11Oti22.00
12Volta30.00
13Upper East26.00
14Upper West22.00
15Western North26.00
16Western28.00
17Average price26.13

Source- Animal Production Directorate/MoFA

World Prices of  Lamb 2000-2022

World Bank Pink Sheet


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Enterprise Budget for Small Ruminants

Enterprise Budget for Small Ruminants

 

 Enterprise Budget 

SN

ASSUMED PRODUCTION PARAMETERS

1

Fertility rate of Nanny/Ewe

80%

2

Kidding/lambing/year

1.7

3

Litter size (20% twining)

1.2

4

Mortality

5%

5

Breeding Gimmers (Female) 

50

6

Breeding Buck/Ram (Male)

3

7

Entrepreneur has land resource 

 

SN

INPUTS NEEDED

1

Breeding stock

2

Land

3

Housing/equipment

4

Pasture and fodder

5

Breeding Stock

6

Medication (veterinary drugs and vaccination)

7

Labour

STOCK DYNAMICS 
YEAR BREEDING STOCK FERTILITY (80%) NO. LAMBING /KIDDING/YR AV. LITTER SIZE Expected litter No. MORTALITY (5%) WEANED/FATTEN FOR SALE Live Sale 22kg at GH¢ 20/kg   
      0              50             0.80            1.7             1.2       81.6              4.08                        -                       -    
       1             50             0.80            1.7             1.2       81.6               4.08              155.04       68,217.60  
       2             50             0.80            1.7             1.2       81.6               4.08              155.04       71,628.48  
       3             50             0.80            1.7             1.2       81.6               4.08              155.04       75,039.36  
       4             50             0.80            1.7             1.2       81.6               4.08              155.04       78,450.24  

 

Input Costing 

ITEM

AMOUNT GH¢

AMOUNT $

Fixed Assets

Cost of Housing Structure

                 15,000.00 

             2,678.57 

Equipment (Weighing scale, wheel barrow, spade etc)

5,000.00                            

                         892.86 

Sub-Total Cost (Fixed Assets)

20,000.00

3,571.43

Variable Cost 
Supplementary feeding @ 20p/day/animal

                    9,855.00 

              1,759.82 

Vaccination/Drugs 

                   1,000.00 

                      178.57 

Female sheep/gimmers (50) @ 450

      22,500.00 

              4,017.86 

Male Sheep/Rams (3) @ 450

                    1,350.00 

                 241.07 

Pasture development (2 hectares)

                    3,000.00 

                 535.71 

Sub-Total (Variable Cost)

37,705.00

6,733.04

Overhead Cost

Utilities 

                   1,500.00 

                       267.86 

Labour (1 labourer @ 400/month)

4,800.00

857.14

Pasture maintenance (2 hectares)

1,200

214.29

Sub-Total (Overhead Cost) 

7,500.00

1,339.29

TOTAL COST

65,205.00 

              11,643.75  

 

 Profit analysis 

A/C Heading 

PERIOD 

Y0 Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4 
 Revenue                  0       68,217.60     71,628.48     75,039.36     78,450.24  
            
Fixed cost Dep (20%)      4,000.00       4,000.00       4,000.00       4,000.00       4,000.00  
Variable cost 37,705.00 10,855.00 10,855.00 10,855.00 10,855.00 
Overhead cost 7,500.00 7,500.00 7,500.00 7,500.00 7,500.00 
Total Cost    49,205.00     22,355.00     22,355.00     22,355.00     22,355.00  
Profit before tax (49,205.00)     45,862.60     49,273.48     52,684.36     56,095.24  

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Key Policies and Programmes

Credit Policies

The Government of Ghana has a dedicated bank, the Agricultural Development Bank, mandated to take care of agricultural financing. The bank has recently set aside an amount of Five Hundred Million (GH¢ 500,000,000.00) for promotion of livestock in the country at a concessionary rate.    

Tariffs

Tariffs on imported meat are set to raise revenue and competitiveness of the indigenous livestock industry. The level of tariffs on imported meat and meat products is 20 percent of Cost, Insurance and Freight (CIF) of the import. Other taxes and levies are:  

  • Value Added Tax (VAT): 12.5 per cent
  • National Health Insurance Levy: 2.5 percent (collected by the VAT Secretariat)
  • Export Development and Investment Fund Levy: 0.5 percent
  • Inspection Fee: 1 percent
  • ECOWAS Levy: 0.5 percent
  • Ghana Customs Network: 0.4 percent of CIF.

 

Tax Holidays

Sheep/Goats enterprises enjoys 5 years tax holidays in Ghana  

 

The Government of Ghana Policies

Measures and regulations aimed at the development of the livestock industry are based on a set of strategies specified in the Livestock Development Policy. These strategies target the different categories of actors in the livestock sector, and address issues of breed improvement, production, health management, processing, and marketing. Some of the key strategies being implemented are:  

  1. Focus on improving animal health 
  2. Improve access to quality feed and water  
  3. Enhance the performance of indigenous breeds through a programme of selection and Artificial Insemination (AI)  
  4. Develop commercial poultry as the priority for improving meat supply in the short term, while measures are implemented to transform smallholder production into profitable enterprises and  
  5. Improve access of operators to technology and appropriate financial instruments to enhance their competitiveness with imports

 

International Trade Policies  

Given the current policy of trade liberalization, trade policy will be used to promote the international competitiveness of domestic enterprises. The specific policy objectives are to: 

  1. Improve export Competitiveness 
  2. Diversify and increase exports and markets and 
  3. Accelerate economic integration with other regional and/or sub-regional states.  

 

Current Project in the Livestock Sub-sector  

 The Government of Ghana has designed a 5-year strategic programme: “Rearing for Food and Jobs” which is one of the 5 modules of the Planting for Food and Jobs (PFJ).  

The objective is to develop a competitive and more efficient livestock industry that increases domestic production, reduces importation of livestock products and contributes to employment generation and to the improvement of livelihoods of livestock value chain actors and the national economy.  

The RFJ focuses on five key livestock species consisting: dairy cattle, sheep, goats, pigs and poultry.  

Under RFJ Small ruminant production is to receive a boost through the supply of breeding stock on credit in-kind basis.  

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Agriculture in Africa Media LBG| Email: Ghana@agricinafrica.com

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