Ghana: Sorghum


Sorghum Summary Fact Sheet

Average National Output (2016 to 2020)
  • 305,400 MT
Total National Output ( 2019 and 2020)
  • 347,000 MT (2019)
  • 356,000 MT (2020)
Total Area Under Cultivation (2020)
  • 227,000 Ha
Market Share
  • 8% of total cereal production value, ranking third in Ghana
Major Production Regions
  • 96.5% of Total National Production by Northern, Upper East, Upper West regions 
  • 3.5% of Total National Production by Volta and Brong Ahafo regions
Highest Producing Region
  • 55% of the total national output comes from the Northern Region
Cropping Cycle
  • One cropping cycle per year
Varieties of Sorghum
  • Kapaala
  • Dorado
  • Naga White
  • Kadaga
  • Framida
Maturity Date
  • 90 to 170 days
Conditions of Varieties
  • Varieties that mature later than 120 days tend to put on more foliage and produce fewer grains 
  • The grain to straw ratio may be as high as 1:5. 
Parasites of Sorghum
  • Striga asiatica  (witchweed)
Planting Time
  • June: Guinea and Sudan Savanna zones
  •  Late May to June: Transitional zone
Planting Distance
  • 75cm x 20cm (early maturing varieties)
  • 75cm x 25cm (medium maturing varieties)
  • 75cm x 30cm (late maturing varieties)
  • 40cm x 20cm (new recommendation)
Density (Plant Population Per Ha)
  • 75 cm x 20 cm (66,600)
  • 75 cm x 25 cm (53,300)
  • 75 cm x 30 cm (44,400)
  • 40 cm x 20 cm (125,000)
Types of Fertiliser Used for Production
  • NPK 25-10-10+6S+3MgO+0.3Zn
  • NPK 20-10-10+3S
  • NPK 23-10-5+2MgO+3S+0.3Zn
Fertiliser Application Rate Per Ha
  • 1-2 Weeks after planting: 6 bags or 300 Kg of N.P.K per Ha
  • 5-6 Weeks after planting:  2 bags or 100 Kg of Urea Urea per
National Average Yield (2020)
  • 1.56 MT/ Ha (1,530 Kg/Ha)
Potential Yield in Ghana (2020)
  • 2.0 MT/Ha (2,000 Kg/Ha)
National Average Yield
  • 1.56 MT/Ha in Ghana
  • 3 MT /Ha in Niger and Burkina Faso
 Budget Benchmarks
Costs of Production Per Ha
  • GHȼ 3,289.65
Estimated Revenue Per season
  • GHȼ 7,200.00  (Based on Yield: 3,000 Kg/Ha and Unit Price: GHȼ 240.00 per 100Kg)
 Market & Trade
Domestic Consumption
  • 333,477 MT (95%) of total national output in 2020
Per Capita Consumption 2020
  • 11 kg (National)
Percentage that Goes Into Seed, Feed and Wastage
  • 43,060 MT (13%)
Industrial (Breweries) Demand (2010)
  • 3,500 MT per Annum representing 1% of Total National Output
  • 10,000 MT per Annum, representing 2.8% of Potential Demand
Potential Demand
  • 10,000 MT per annum representing about 2.8% of total national output
Some Aggregators for Guinness Ghana
  • Agriaccess Limited
  • Faranaya Agribusiness Centre Limited
  • Awo Fields 
  •  A&E Farms
Emerging Risks
  • Low Seed quality and crop variety (Grain to straw ratio)
  • Climate Change (Erratic rainfall patterns)
  • Soil infertility affecting yields
  • High post-harvest losses and wastages
  • Pests and diseases attack
  • The volatility of market prices
  • Lack of/inadequate financial support
  • Storage and quality of produce
  • The increasing importance of rice and maize as preferred grain
  • Withdrawal of research support to generate better varieties
  • Decreasing public support for production and technical assistance
  • Regional trade and importation of cheaper sorghum from neighbouring countries
Processors in Ghana
  • Guinness Ghana Breweries Limited (GGBL) as substitute for barley for Beer and soft drinks (Malt)
  • Premium Foods for flour, grits, baby foods, etc.
  • Nestle for Human foods eg Milo etc.
Types of Sorghum for Processing
  • Red sorghum for local beer, pito
  • White sorghum for human consumption
  • GGBL prefer white sorghum because it lack tannins


General Overview of Sorghum Production

Sorghum ranks third of the cereals grown in Ghana in terms of production value, after maize and rice, with a share of about 8% on total cereal production value. Production is concentrated in the five northern regions (Upper East, Upper West, Savanna, North East and Northern). The average yield per Ha is about 1.56MT which is significantly lower than in other sorghum growing regions like Burkina Faso and Niger who have achieved more than 3MT. Input supply especially seeds is largely through the research institutions of CSIR-SARI and CSIR-CRI.

In Ghana, sorghum production and marketing had mainly been subsistence and small scale until the two major Breweries working through a Private-Public Partnership began actively promoting the crop as a substitute to imported ingredients for manufacturing beer. The structured development of the value chain under the drive of the breweries led to the cultivation of the crop through medium-scale nucleus farmers and their out-growers, and a few individual commercial farmers. The common industrial production model is the nucleus farmer – out-grower model. A nucleus farmer typically works with about 100 to 300 out-growers. The farms are in blocks with each out-grower cultivating between 1 and 5 acres of field. The breweries combined consume just about 274,500 MT which represents less than 1% of the national output of 356,000 MT (2020). The average yield on-farm for the commodity in 2020 is 1.56 MT/Ha but has a potential of 4-5 MT/Ha according to research on some released varieties. 

Table 1: Sorghum Varieties

Variety GrainMaturity (Days)
Local 29White160
Pan 606 (Hybrid)White136-144

Source: MoFA

According to the Facts and Figures from MoFA-SRID, 2020 (Figure 1), Ghana has about 227,000 hectares of land under sorghum cultivation. Average yields increased from 1.14 MT/ha in 2016 to 1.56 MT/ha in 2020  while the potential with current certified seed or improved hybrid materials are estimated to be as much as 2.0 MT/ha and higher if grown in suitable areas and Good Agronomic Practices are adhered to.  

Figure 1: Production (Mt), Area (Ha) and Yield (Mt/Ha) of Sorghum



The Northern Region alone contributes more than 55% of the total national output of 356,000MT in 2020. Between 2011 and 2016, yields per hectare in the region has stagnated at an average of about 1.1 MT/Ha. 

Currently, the sorghum value chain is facing some competition from other cereals especially maize which has also been identified as one of the priority crops by the government to ensure food security and increase farmers’ incomes while providing jobs for the unemployed under the Planting for Food and Jobs campaign. Production of sorghum has received some support from the government through seed distribution, fertilizer distribution, extension and technical support under the PFJ and from the brewery industry. 

Figure 2: Picture of Sorghum


Table 2: Sorghum Production (MT) Statistics

Top 5 Regions3-Yr Average (2018-2020)Share of Overall Total
NORTHERN  82,51625.62%
UPPER WEST106,79433.16%
UPPER EAST85,25926.48%
NORTH EAST23,6037.33%


Figure 3: Key Sorghum production Areas in Ghana


Sorghum is mostly grown in the northern part of Ghana mainly Northern, Upper West, Upper East, Savanna and North East and these regions together accounted for 96.5 percent of total production based on the 3-yr average (2018-2020). Volta Region and Brong Ahafo Region are the other two regions that produce sorghum and both contributed a share of about 3.5 percent to the total production in the country. The Northern Region and the Upper West Region respectively contributed higher shares of about 39 percent and 35 percent respectively.

Table 3: S.W.O.T Analysis of Sorghum


  • Sorghum producers, both men and women, have traditional knowledge and experience in sorghum production.
  • Existence of indigenous and improved sorghum varieties well suited to Ghana's agro-ecological conditions.
  • Producers are aware that modern agricultural inputs exist.


  • Sorghum is a rain-fed crop that is overly reliant on weather.
  • Low use of improved sorghum-based technologies.
  • Local varieties sensitive to stem borer and cecidomyid.
  • Prices are not remunerative for sorghum producers.
  • Other potential markets for sorghum promotion are underdeveloped (brewery, poultry feed).


  • Sorghum-based processed products are said to be suitable for diabetic meals.
  • Sorghum is a maize substitute in poultry feed.
  • Sorghum research yielded intriguing results in terms of technologies and techniques.
  • Sorghum is one of the most commonly consumed dry cereals in Ghana.



  • The adverse effects of climate change on rain- fall.
  • Poor capacity to forecast yield and crop production
  • Weak extension, training, research linkages
  • In the supply markets, offer is erratic.
  • Inadequate bank financing if granted.




Sorghum Value Chain

Input Provision

The productivity of sorghum in Ghana is relatively low considering the recent demands and appreciation of the commodity by some industrial players. Yield gap in sorghum has been low 96.5 percent below the potential yield of 2.0 Mt/Ha. The adoption of high yielding certified seed of improved varieties as well as employing Good Agronomic Practices can result in improved productivity.


Most of the sorghum is produced by smallholder farmers and groups with less than 2ha farm holdings under rain-fed conditions. Sorghum is mostly grown in the  Northern, Upper East and Upper West regions and some parts of the Volta Region and Brong Ahafo Region. The three northern regions together accounted for 96.5 percent of total production based on the 3-yr average (2017-2019). Smallholder farmers rely on the traditional methods of farming and as such yields are below their attainable levels.  

According to the Facts and Figures from MoFA-SRID, 2020 (table 1), Ghana has about 227,000 hectares of land under sorghum cultivation. Average yields increased from 1.14 MT/ha in 2016 to 1.56 MT/ha in 2020  while the potential with current certified seed or improved hybrid materials are estimated to be as much as 2.0 MT/ha and higher if grown in suitable areas and Good Agronomic Practices are adhered to.  

Table 1: Production Trend of Sorghum in Ghana between 2010and 2020

Annual Production ‘000MT353287280257259228230278316347356
Annual Area Planted ‘000Ha253244231226227228201224228226227
Yield (MT per Ha)1.391.

The Northern Region alone contributes more than 55% of the total national output of 356,000MT in 2020. Between 2011 and 2016, yields per hectare in the region has stagnated at an average of about 1.1 MT/Ha. 


Annual Production and Supply Analysis Trend

Source: SRID,2020


In the most typical production areas, transport from the field to the first-level of aggregation is currently undertaken by bicycle, donkey, or truck. The aggregators more often buy the sorghum in bigger sacks and re-bag them and later sell them to various consumers including the breweries (small and large scale). Aggregators in the sorghum value chain are confronted with the following challenges:

  • Poor access to financial assistance
  • Transportation challenges
  • Absence of price standardization
  • Non-uniformity of produce

Despite these challenges, some of the aggregators receive a little financial support from Micro Credit and Financial Institution like the Sinapi Aba Trust to enable them to purchase in bulk from producers. In the Northern Region, Nasia Rice Mills also support processors and aggregators with transport services and bulking of the harvested produce.

Some Aggregators for Guinness Ghana

  • Agriaccess Limited
  • Faranaya Agribusiness Centre Limited
  • Awo Fields
  • A&E Farms

Marketing and Distribution

Over 300,000 MT of sorghum is traded within the Ghanaian market annually. Marketing and distribution is dominated by itinerant grain traders who handle more than 45% of the total volume traded. There are about 17 wholesalers who also double as the aggregators and intermediaries for bulk and institutional buyers. These wholesalers are mostly located within the urban centres in the Northern Region especially Tamale. The breweries consume less than 1% of the total supply of sorghum. The bulk of the sorghum is consumed at the household level and in the food industry.


Consumption and Demand Analysis

Per the 2019/2020 food balance sheet, domestic consumption of sorghum is estimated at 333,477 MT which is about 95% of the total national output. The national per capita consumption of sorghum is 10.77kg per annum. While this indicates the national average, the per capita consumption in the Northern Region is estimated at 55.8kg per annum (MoFA-SRID 2018). Farmers in the Northern Region which accounts for more than 38% of the total national output, consume more than 69% of their produce. The surplus 31% is supplied to the local and national markets in major urban centres. Out of the total national output, 41,110.69 MT representing 13% is accounted for as seed, feed and wastage. 

Total exports are insignificant since there is a high demand for commodity domestically. Ghana Breweries, one of the largest breweries in Ghana is implementing a strategy to replace barley malt, imported from other countries, with sorghum malt and to reduce its importation bill, without a loss in quality. In 2010 the breweries demand of sorghum was 3,500 MT/annum representing 1% of total national output. Potential demand from the breweries is estimated at 10,000 MT/annum which is about 2.8%. 


Food Balance Sheet (2019/2020) Production Season

Total Production 356,000 MT
Total Imports3 MT
Carry overstock33,016 MT
Exports 58 MT
Domestic Utilization (Food)333,477 MT
Seed, Feed and Wastage43,060 MT 
Total Supplies378,382 MT
Import dependency ratio0%

Source: SRID, 2020


Key Agronomic Practices

Key Agronomic Practices and their Importance

Good Agricultural PracticeBrief Description and importance
Planting MaterialThe basic planting material is seed. The seed is either an Open Pollinated Variety or a Hybrid. There are several varieties of these planting materials released and registered in Ghana. However, the popular varieties are the Open Pollinated Varieties (OPVs) including Kapaala, Dorado, Naga White, Kadaga, Framida, etc.

Choosing a Variety


Sorghum is well adapted to many environments. Most varieties require 90 to 170 days to mature. Highest yields are usually obtained from varieties that mature in 100 to 120 days. Grain sorghum varieties usually have a grain to the straw ratio of about 1:1. Early maturing varieties may not yield quite as much because of the reduced growing period. Varieties that mature later than 120 days tend to put on more foliage and produce fewer grains (the grain to straw ratio may be as high as 1:5). Irrespective of the  agro-ecological zone, the choice of variety should take into consideration the acceptability of the variety by the farmers and the community.

Seed Selection


Good quality seed is the basis for a good sorghum crop. Always purchase seed from certified seed dealers. Where certified seed is not available, seed from previous crops may be used. The following guidelines should be used when selecting seed from previous crops.

  • Panicles should not be threshed until ready to use
  • Store seed in a safe place
  • Conduct a germination test
Land Preparation

The cropping history of the field dictates the method of land preparations to be adopted. The following methods may be adopted:

  • Traditional land clearing techniques using hoes and cutlasses
  • Tractors and bullock if the farmer can afford their services
  • No-till using Glyphosate. Glyphosate may be applied at 3-4 litres/ha to control Cyperus spp, Spear grass and other noxious weeds.



Planting is the most critical phase in the establishment of a new crop on a prepared field. Some steps to consider before planting includes 

  • seed selection,
  • germination test and
  • seed treatment.

Other important factors to consider when planting sorghum are times of planting and how to plant. Depending on maturity of the various varieties, planting should be done at a time when adequate and evenly distributed rainfall from planting to grain filling period is guaranteed.

 It is however important that the rainfall is light during flowering period since heavy rains result in poor seed set presumably due to washing of pollen and mould infection in the ears.

Choose suitable soils


Sorghum grows well in different types of soil. For optimum growth of sorghum plants and  in order to exploit it inherent yield potential,  a deep well-drained fertile soil is preferred.
Agro Climate ConditionsA medium to good and stable rainfall pattern during the growing season is desirable. Evenly distributed rainfall with volumes between 600 and 1,000 mm per annum, is ideal. Warm temperatures (20 to 30 ºC) is optimum for the production of sorghum.

Roguing is a very important activity, especially in seed fields. This is done to remove plants that are not true to type or with undesirable characteristics from the field. They are usually referred to as off-types. They are removed from the field to ensure that the crop retains its integrity as regards to certain physical attributes. It is also to avoid admixtures and ensure purity in grain type when harvested. 

Rogue whenever necessary.

Pest and Disease Management


Pests and diseases can cause considerable damage to sorghum and therefore reduce crop productivity. The pests and diseases of sorghum must be effectively managed through an integrated approach to optimize crop yield. 

The use of weather information and early warning systems guide farmers on the choice of appropriate crop protection measures to adopt against diseases, pests, and weeds. Such measures include targeted use of recommended agrochemicals, altering the planting dates, spraying when pests reach the economic threshold levels and use of natural enemies (biological control) etc.  Always use protective clothing when spraying.  

Soil Fertility Management


Conducting periodic soil tests helps in determining the nutrient (organic and inorganic) needs of sorghum and makes the appropriate fertilizer recommendations. 

Apply 6 bags NPK (20:20:0 or 15:15:15) or any of the fertilizer recommendations per hectare at planting or after germination for maximum benefit. For top dressing, apply 2 bags of urea late in August for full season sorghum. For early and medium maturing sorghum, split - apply nitrogen at 3 and 8 weeks after planting. Fertilizer should be applied 6-8 cm from plant to avoid scorching young seedlings. It is also desirable to bury the fertilizer. Where local sources of compost, organic waste or animal manure is available, apply 7 to 10 tonnes per hectare to meet the nutrient demand of the crop. Note that when applying compost use only well-decomposed materials and provide shade over the compost heaps until they are needed to prevent loss of nutrient through volatilization and leaching during heavy rains. Also, note that when applying urea also it is twice the concentration of sulphate of ammonia, so half the amount is needed. Nitrogen loss through volatilization is high up to 80% when left uncovered, therefore urea must be buried for maximum returns.

Weed Management


Weed control during the first six to eight weeks after planting is crucial, as weeds compete vigorously with the crop for nutrients and water during this period. 

The root parasite Striga asiatia (L.) Kuntze or witchweed (rooiblom) can damage the crop and mainly occurs under low input farming conditions. The parasitic plants are single-stemmed with bright red flowers. Most of the damage is done before the parasite emerges from the soil.

The symptoms include leaf wilting, leaf rolling, and leaf scorching even though the soil may have sufficient water. The tiny seeds are disseminated by wind, water, and animals, and remain viable in the soil for 15 - 20 years. Rotation with cotton, groundnut, cowpea and pigeon pea will reduce the incidence of Striga. Hand picking of affected plants before flowering may help.

Use an integrated approach to successfully manage weeds. They may include preventive, cultural, chemical, and mechanical methods.

Harvest Management


A pre-harvesting spray of glyphosate can be applied immediately after physiological maturity has been reached. This will hasten  dry down of the crop. 

Pest and disease infestation start in the field, if harvesting is delayed. 

Lodging, which is due to weak root and stems at maturity may increase if harvesting is also delayed. It is therefore important to harvest the grains as soon as they reach physiological maturity. Delayed harvesting results in poor seed storability or germination.

Post-Harvest practices 



After harvesting, dry heads properly (to about 10% moisture content) before storage in a cool dry place. Harvested heads can be stored on platforms for periods over 12 months before threshing. After threshing, the seed should be treated with actellic powder (1g/kg seed) to control weevils. Grains may be stored in jute sacks or poly sacks. 

Heads of Harvested Sorghum (Source: FINGAP)



Grain at or below 14% percent moisture is considered dry. For long-term storage (more than 12 months), grain moisture content should be a maximum of 13.5%. 

The storage environment for Sorghum should be cool and dry to avoid the accumulation of moisture to prevent grain quality deterioration. A safe storage system should provide protection from insects, rodents, birds, and other foreign materials.

Grain of Sorghum (Source: FINGAP)

Methods of Storage

Sorghum grain is stored traditionally in mud bins, straw bins, bamboo bins, in metal bins, sacks, or cribs in an opened (uncontrolled) environment. It can also be stored in a controlled environment e.g. silos and cold storage facilities.  


Key Risks Along the Value Chain and Mitigation Measures

Value Chain ActionsKey Risks and ChallengesMitigation Measures

Input Supply



Poor seed quality and variety affecting productivity

- Purchase seed from reputable outlet

- Conduct seed viability test before planting

-  Invest in variety development

- Ensure seed production protocol is followed

- Encourage the use of improved and certified seeds for production

Stagnant yields of 1.1MT per annum and uncompetitive supply chain

- Encourage the adoption of high yielding varieties, use appropriate fertilizer at right time, follow GAPs.

- Establish demonstrations and field days


Inadequate Finance and capital



- Good record keeping

- Understand requirement for acquiring loans from Financial Institutions

- Link farmers to credible financing sources.

- Link producers and processors to access Financial services – loans and crop insurance products

- A contractual agreement between producers and industrial end-users 

- Encourage the formation of registered groups to access finance


Climate change (erratic rainfall patterns/drought/dry spells)



-Follow Meteor bulletins

-  Build the capacity of actors to be climate resilient

- Cultivate early maturing varieties

- Use drought-tolerant varieties

- Pay attention to early warning systems and plant when the rains have stabilized 

- Cultivate in valley bottoms

- Service providers should provide key information and resources to actors on a regular basis to better manage climate risk

Soil infertility affecting yields


- Carry out a soil test

- Apply recommended and appropriate fertilizers

Pests and diseases attack especially striga/ witchweed

- Pay attention to early warning systems

- Apply recommended agro-chemicals

- Follow Good Agronomic Practices (GAPs)

- Rotate with cotton, groundnut, cowpea and pigeon pea 

Post-harvest handling

High post-harvest losses and wastage 



- Establish strong linkages between producers, processors and industrial consumers for timely offtake of produce

-Train and encourage product diversity

- Training on post-harvest technologies and GAPs.

- Build/Set up quality storage facilities in major sorghum growing areas.


A contractual agreement  create a strong linkage among the various actors especially producers and processors so there could be regular production and timely offtake.

Poor and limited storage facilities

The volatility of market prices



- A contractual agreement between producers and industrial end-users such as breweries.

- NAFCO should engage producers to off-take produce when prices fall as an incentive to remain in production.

- Capacity building of producers and other actors in the value chain

ProcessingThe increasing importance of rice and maize as preferred grain by breweriesEncourage breeding of varieties with high processing qualities and short duration

The high demand for the commodity



- Adoption of improved varieties and quality seeds.

- Government to support and promote crop intensification to increase the scale of production.

- A contractual agreement between producers and industrial end-users in respect of demand and supply.


Pests & Diseases, Symptoms and Control Measures

Major Pest of Sorghum and their Management

PestSymptomsControl and Management

Stem borer (Chilo partellus)

  • Dead heart (drying of central shoots) at seeding stage.
  • Large larvae tunnel in stalks causing reduced grain fill and increased stalk lodging.
  • Plough up and destroy the stubble after harvest
  • Plant early and remove all affected plants
  • Burn dry stalk
  • Use resistant varieties

Spittle bug attack and control

Chlorotic spots and Blotches on the leavesChemical control karate at 0.6/ha before Anthesis (flowering).

Shoot fly (Atherigona soccata)

Wilting and drying up of central leaf


  • Practice early planting
  • Use resistant varieties
  • Use systematic insecticides, karate at 0.6/ha
  • High seeding rate

Head bug (Eurystylus oldi)

  • Shriveling.
  • Small and off-coloured kernel
  • Deterioration in grain quality
Applying insecticides such as endosulfan 2.0 or kanate at 0.61/Ha

Sorghum midge

  • Blasted panicle develops which prevents grain development
  • Production of empty spikelets
  • Early and uniform planting of sorghum over large areas
  • Deep ploughing sorghum residue kills some larvae, reducing sorghum midge abundance the following season.
  • Use of resistant varieties can also be  very effective


Major Diseases of Sorghum and their Management

DiseasesSymptomsControl and Management

Grain mould

The appearance of pink, orange, gray, white or black mycelium on the grain surface.Adjust planting dates so that plants enter grain filling stage and reach maturity during periods with infrequent rains.

Zonate leaf spot

The spot often occurs in semi-circular patterns along the margins of leaves
  • Practice crop rotation
  • Use tolerant varieties

Long smut

Presence of elongated, cylindrical, slightly curved sacs on any part of the panicleUse resistant varieties

Head smut

Gall ruptures to expose a mass of brown-black powder (smut spores)
  • Use resistant varieties
  • Use clean seed
  • Treat seed with Apron


Sooty stripe

Small, circular, reddish-brown or tan spots with a yellow halo on leaf.
  • Practice crop rotation
  • Destroy infected leaf debris as a means of reducing initial inoculum


Market Information on Sorghum

The major markets for trade and commerce of sorghum are Tamale, Techiman, Kumasi and Accra.

Factors noted to be affecting volumes of sorghum traded are variable and location-specific. They include:

  • Transportation difficulties
  • Supply availability
  • Finance and capital
  • Storage and quality of produce
  • Number of sellers and buyers
  • Price volatility

Over 300,000MT of sorghum is traded within the Ghanaian market annually. Marketing and distribution is dominated by itinerant grain traders who handle more than 45% of the total volume traded. There are about 17 wholesalers who also double as the aggregators and intermediaries for bulk and institutional buyers. These wholesalers are mostly located within the urban centres in the Northern Region, especially Tamale. 

The breweries like Guinness Ghana Breweries Ltd consume less than 1% of the total supply of sorghum. The bulk of the sorghum is consumed at the household level and in the food industry


Price Trends

The Ghana National annual average nominal wholesale market price for a ton of Sorghum as at  2021 was GHS2,921.50 whiles the annual real price was GHS2,254.24. 

SRID, MoFA                        A Rebased CPI with 2012 constant prices 

World Annual Price of Sorghum 2000 - 2020

World Bank Pink Sheet


Enterprise Budget for Sorghum

Sorghum Crop Budget (3.0 MT per Hectare) (2019)


Cost per hectare (GH¢

Qty. / Freq.Unit cost Total cost
Land preparationPloughing1ha175.00 175.00
Harrowing1ha100.00 100.00 
Crop establishmentCertified seed10 Kg7.00 70.00 
Planting1 ha200.00 200.00 
Weed managementPre-emergence herbicide 3 lts 28.00                          28.00                          
Application cost1 ha50.00 50.00                          
Weeding with Hoeing1 ha270.00 270.00 
Fertilizer managementStarter fertilizer NPK 5 bags120.00600.00
Application cost5 bags (1 ha)150.00 150.00 
Top dressing with Urea 2 bags (1 ha)120.00240.00 
Application cost2 bags (1 ha)150.00150.00
Bird scaring by 2 people for the last 30 days prior to harvesting 1 ha10600
Harvest 1 ha250.00               250.00               
Shelling using engine powered sheller30 bags4.00120.00 
Bagging 30 bags0.50 15.00 
Empty sacks 30 pieces3.00 90.00 
Sewing twine5 rolls5.00 25.00 
Production Cost3,133.00
5% Contingency 156.65
Total Production Cost  3,289.65 (A) 
Total Revenue3,000 kg/ ha - 30 maxi bags GH¢240 per 100 kg 7,200.00 (B)
Net revenue (A-B)  3,910.35


Key Policies and Programmes


The Food and Agricultural Sector Development Policy (FASDEP) II and its implementation plan Medium Term Agricultural Investment Plan (METASIP) drive agriculture in Ghana. The government has a new medium term  plan dubbed Investing for Food and Jobs (IFJ): an agenda for transforming Ghana’s Agriculture (2018-2021). The IFJ is a successor to the FASDEP II.  

The Policy is focused on the following in respect of sorghum:

  • Enhance an integrated promotion of food and industrial crop.
  • Enhance competitiveness and profitability through access to improved technological packages for increased productivity.
  • Ensure sustainable management of the environment in crop production systems.
  • Increase the availability of improved technological packages, especially planting materials and certified seeds
  • Improve productivity at the farm level.
  • Develop infrastructure for post-harvest management of crops.
  • Provide knowledge of sustainable land management practices.



The following projects in the table 1 were formulated or have been put in place to support the development of the sorghum value chain from input acquisition through to the end-user.

Table 1: Projects/Programmes and their Outputs

Project/ProgrammePeriod /YearActivity/Output

West African Sorghum Value Chain Development Project



- Increase millet, sorghum production.

- Develop local sorghum supply chains to the beverage companies while increasing farmers' income. 

Key targets were reaching 10,000 families and reaching a volume of 10,000 MT sorghum supplied to the two participating breweries.

West Africa Agricultural Productivity Programme2013-2018Increase millet, sorghum production.
Food Facility Programme2010-2012Increase millet, sorghum production.
Northern Rural Growth Programme2009-2016To substantially increase the income of rural households in Northern Ghana. - The project covers 57 districts from the Northern Region, Upper East Region, Upper West Region and adjoining districts of the Brong-Ahafo Region.
Ghana Agricultural Sector Investment Programme (GASIP)2015-2021Develop the sorghum value chain through capacity building of various actors.
Savannah Zone Agricultural Productivity Improvement Project2018 - 2022Transform agricultural value chains for food and nutrition security, job, and wealth creation in the SADA Zone.


Sorghum Growing Seasons and Cropping Cycle

If you require access to the Ghana Cropping Calendar, email:
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