Ghana: Mango


Mango Summary Fact Sheet

Total Number of Farmers
  • 8,000 


Total Production in Ghana (2020)
  • 99,242 MT (2020).

FAOSTAT, 2020                    

Production by Top Producing Regions
  • Brong Ahafo 8,685 acres
  • Northern 8,187 acres
  • Eastern 5,510 acres
  • Volta 4,837 acres
  • Greater Accra 3,453 acres
  • Ashanti 1,000 acres
Growing Zones and Seasons

Southern Zone

  • Major season: May-August
  • Minor season: December-February

Northern Zone

  • Mid-April and Mid-August
Major Growing Countries
  • Mexico, India, Thailand, Brazil, Mali, Burkina Faso, Cote D’Ivoire and Senegal
Major Local Processing Companies
  • Blue Skies, HPW Fresh & Dry Limited, Bomarts Farms Limited, Pinora, and Peelco 
Cropping Cycle
  • The crop is cultivated year-round
  • At least 2 months of dry period is required for flower induction
  • Mango tree starts bearing fruit 3 years after planting
  • Economic bearing stage is 7 years
Planting Time
  • Plant just before rains: April – May and August - September (May be different under irrigated mango farm and location).
Planting Distance
  • 10m x 10m. 
  • 9m x 6m
  • 8m x 8m

*Depends on location and cultivars. For intensive management some recommendations include: 6m x 6m, 8m x 6m, 9m x 6m, 10m x 5m

Plant Density
  • 100 trees
  • 140 trees
  • 160 trees

*124 to 140 for 9m by 9m spacing. 

*100 trees per acre at ITFC (irrigated)

Types of Fertiliser Used for Production
  • Urea – 8 bag (400kg)
  • Sulphate of Potassium – 8 bags (400kg)
  • NPK 15:15:15 - 5 bags (250kg)
Fertiliser Application Rate Per Ha

An acre of 24,000 plants:

  • Urea – 1/2 bag (25kg)
  • Sulphate of Potassium – 2 bags (100kg)
    • Use 1,200 litres of water.
    • For a drum of water (i.e. 200 litres) mix 4.4kg of urea and 8.2kg of SOP and apply it to 4,000 plants
    • Repeat application (2.5 times) to meet requirement per hectare
Demand Gap
  • Between 2,000 Mt and 5,000 Mt
Ecological Zones
  • Coastal Savannah
  • Forest Savannah and Transition and
  • Districts in the Eastern Region
Preferred Market Size
  • Demand for count 8 and 10 or smaller size 12 per 4 kg
Main Suppliers and Seasons
  • Brazil: September-February
  • Cote d’Ivoire: March – July
  • South Africa: Dec-May
  • USA: March to November
  • Mexico: May – November
  • Venezuela: March – Sept
  • Ghana: May-July and Dec – Feb
  • Mali – March - June
  • Peru: December-April
Major Processed Products
  • Cut fruits,
  • Dry mangoes
  • Juice
Time for Land Preparation
  • November and December targeting the winter (January and February) market in Europe 
  • March and April targeting the local processing floors
Total Area Under Cultivation (Ha) 2020
  • 8,000 Ha


Yield Per Hectare
  • Average yield:  7.5 – 12.5 MT
  • Potential Yield: 25 MT

Crop Directorate, 2021

Emerging Risks
  • Land Acquisition,
  • Bacterial BlackSpot,
  • Over-reliance on natural rainfall,
  • Lack of facilities for packing and
  • Lack of skilled workforce
 Budget Benchmarks
Export Price (2020 and 2021)
  • $ 6.59 to $ 7.26 per Kg
  • GHS 42.12 per kg


General Overview of Mango Production

Mango (Mangifera indica L) has been referred to as the “king” of fruits on account of its taste, aroma and food values. Mango  is a member of the Anacardicaeae family and was introduced in Ghana by Portuguese missionaries. They grew turpentine and Jaffna mango cultivars (Ceylon) at their abodes. The exotic cultivars namely Keitt, Kent, Haden, Atkins and Palmer are now the most popular export mangoes introduced from Florida nearly 40 years ago.

Compared to other West African origins, the presence of fresh mangoes from Ghana on international markets is relatively modest (amounting to less than 3% of EU import volumes supplied from ECOWAS countries). Export volumes to EU increased from 3649 tonnes in 2020 to 4708 in 2021.

The Global demand for Mangoes has seen a steady growth from USD 2.91billion in 2017 to USD 4.14billion in 2021. • The USA was the biggest importer of Mangoes at a value of USD 818.2m. Other prominent global importers were China (USD 774.78m), Netherlands (USD 376m), Germany (USD243.4m, UK (USD 230. 1m) and France (USD155.8m).

The major growing countries are Mexico, India, Thailand and Brazil and in West Africa, we have Mali, Burkina Faso, Cote d’Ivoire and Senegal. Global exports of mangoes, guavas and mangosteens rose to 2.2 million tonnes in 2020, an increase of 2.9 percent from 2019. Global exports of mangoes, guavas and mangosteens rose to approximately 2.2 million tonnes in 2020, an increase of 2.9 percent, or some 60 000 tonnes, from 2019.   

In Ghana, mango exports have increased during the implementation period of USAID's Trade and Investment Program for a Competitive Economy (TIPCEE) between 2005 to 2008/09. Total mangoes produced reached over 131,600 MT in 2020.  There are a number of processing companies undertaking fresh cuts (Blue Skies) and dry fruits (Bomarts Farms, HPW) for the export market. The processing companies also import mangoes from other production sites outside the country when the fruits are out of season.

Export of mangoes from Ghana to EU, increased significantly from 868 MT valued at $2.3 million in 2011 to 4,708 MT valued at $19.5 million in 2021. representing over 1,000%. This has decreased slightly to 1,741 MT valued at $10.85 million in 2017 on account of better prices and exchange rate fluctuations.

Mango farming zones depicting acreages and variety under cultivation and value-added actors at various location across Ghana is shown below.



Figure 1: Fresh Mango Exports in volumes, MT and value, $, (2011 to 2021)


Surprisingly, there is a demand gap and processing industries import between 2,000MT and 5,000MT annually into Ghana and mostly from West Africa neighbours and Brazil.

The major ecological zones for mango production are Coastal Savannah, Forest Savannah and Transition and specifically in these districts in the Eastern Region- Yilo Krobo, Asuogyaman, Dangme West, Manya Krobo and Akwapim South; Other growing areas are Bono and Bono East regions: Techiman, Wenchi, Kintampo, Nkoranza and Atebubu; Volta Region: Tongu, Kpando, Hohoe, Ho; and Northern Region: Tolon, Kumbungu, Savelugu, Nanton and Mamprusi.  

There are over 8,000 mango farmers in Ghana in many producer associations and outgrowers in various district .

Type of MangoProducing CountriesCharacteristics 



Ghana, Colombia, Costa Rica, Kenya, Israel, Egypt, Ivory Coast, South Africa, Zimbabwe, Uganda,Peru, Dominican Republic

The trees are vigorous growers, but tend not to reach heights much over 20 feet. It has a low spreading habit that is not as compact as most other mango trees, and develops an open canopy. Fruit production is relatively heavy and consistent.

Unlike most mango species, Keitts don’t have fibrous pieces in their flesh. This creamy, sweet fruit is excellent for desserts, salads, smoothies and preserves.

Depending on the conditions, this tree will usually reach between 3 and 5 metres in height, with a spread of 2 to 4 metres. For smaller areas, you can prune it down so that it doesn’t become too large.




Morocco,Israel, Mexico, South Africa, Venezuela, Puerto Rico, Gambia, Ivory Coast, Costa Rica


Kent mangoes are large, oval fruit with dark green skins, sometimes with a dark red blush. They have juicy, tender golden flesh with few fibers, which makes them excellent for juicing. it has an average weight between 200 -250 grams.





Ghana, Morocco,Israel, Mexico, South Africa, Venezuela, Puerto Rico, Gambia, Ivory Coast, Costa Rica, Zimbabwe, Jamaica, Guatemala
Tommy Atkins Mangoes Information and Facts

A Floridan variety with medium to large fruits (450-700 g), ovoid in shape, with a rounded apex. Green-red coloration, numerous large green-yellow lenticels. Firm orange juicy flesh, containing fibres 



Mexico, Ecuador, Peru, Ghana



Haden Mango - Etsy

This variety is bred from a sowing of ‘Mulgoba’ in 1902. The fruit has fine appearance and a reputation for fragility, requiring rapid sale. it has an average weight between 510 and 680g.

Orangey yellow, almost fibreless. Pleasant, slightly acidulated taste. Oval to rounded cordate. the ventral shoulder is broader and slightly higher than the dorsal shoulder. well-rounded apex.



 Brazil, South Africa, Ghana

The fruit is large, with especially big specimens reaching several pounds in weight. Coloration tends to be yellow with red blush when ripe; the fruit will turn purple long before becoming mature, sometimes leading to immature fruits being picked.

The flesh is orange-yellow and has a mild and aromatic flavor, with minimal fiber

Palmer (mango) - Wikipedia



S.W.O.T Analysis of Mango


  • Availability of technical support from buyers, Development Partners and other International organisation
  • Established presence in EU market
  • Organised Sea-Freight Mango Exporters Association



  • Unfavourable land tenure system
  • Challenges with pest control and fertiliser quality
  • Inadequate capacity of horticulture sector product associations.
  • Banks considering horticulture as high risk for lending
  • High cost of lending
  • Constraints of raw materials availability faced by existing processing factories.


  • Existence of niche market for Fairtrade certified horticultural products
  • Growing demand for horticultural products globally.
  • Good image and goodwill for Ghanaian fruits on international markets
  • Minimal competition.
  • High quality mango fruits for processing
  • Favourable government policies to support mango production (e.g. PERD, One-district-one-factory policy).



  • Challenges with pest control and fertiliser quality
  • Increasingly stringent sanitary and phytosanitary requirements
  • Inconsistent supply of mango fruits due to seasonality
  • Difficulty in acquiring certification for agro-processed products





Mango Value Chain

Input Dealers

Within the Greater Accra-Tema Metropolis are located large-scale input dealers. The SME input dealers are located and available in all the growing areas. They offer for sale to mango producers a range of farm inputs including seeds/seedlings, budding/Grafting knives, agrochemicals (fertilizers, pesticides), irrigation equipment, spraying equipment, shade net and compost. Additionally, the input dealers provide extension services to back sales on location.

Some of the input supply chain actors are mango nursery operators, agrochemical dealers such as Agrimat, Sidalco, Aglow and other smaller retailers dotted in and around the mango growing areas. 

Commercial Nursery Operators

Commercial nursery actors who have been trained and certified by MoFA and GIZ abound within the value chain.  Mango seedlings are raised as part of farm operations near permanent water sources close to producers undertaking rain-fed cultivation and on location by producers with access to irrigation on large scale operations.

Mechanization Service Providers

Within the value chain, the SMEs depend on private Mechanization Service Providers to undertake land preparation services including stumping, ploughing and harrowing. On the large-scale farms, such services are routinely provided by in- house company workers.


Mango production within the Southern Horticulture Zone (SHZ) is dominated by an army of SME producers who belong to various production associations. The Somanya based Farmer Based Organisation (FBO), Yilo Krobo Mango Famers, is the most organized with membership strength of 250. The Dodowa based Dangbe West Farmers has a membership strength of 80 members whilst VOMAGA with 69 members are located in the Lower Volta basin at Juapong and Fojuku respectively. Farm Management Services Limited (FMSL), a Somanya based Plantation Development and Management Services Provider, belongs to Yilo Krobo Mango Farmers Association with main 6 clients including Cotton Web Link Farms, Premier Exotic, UAM, SMI, Beulah and Kwesnah. FMSL operates a total of 1,130 hectares of mango of which Cotton Web Link Farms owns about 500 hectares as of 2011. Another large mango estate within the SHZ belongs to Bomarts Farms located in the Volta Region.

The Middle belt production is driven by the following producer associations who drive the mango expansion envisioned for the belt.

Name of FBOLocationMembership Strength
DAMFA (Dangme-West Mango Farmers Association)Dangme-West100

SGF (Sunyani Greenfield Co-operative and Mango

Producers and Marketing Society Limited

Sunyani and Berekum65
Yilo Krobo Mango Farmers AssociationYilo Krobo 368
Kintampo North Mango Farmers AssociationKintampo56
Kintampo South Mango Farmers AssociationJema54
Wenchi Mango Farmers AssociationWenchi48
Atebubu Mango Farmers AssociationAtebubu30
Techiman Mango Farmers AssociationTechiman50

Preferable varieties are 

  • Keitt and
  • Kent


Processing for export 

Six major processing companies are involved in fresh pre-cuts, dried and fruit juice products that are exported mainly to the EU market. These include Blue Skies, HPW Fresh & Dry Limited, Bomarts Farms Limited, Pinora now Sono, Peelco and Frutiland Processing Company who all have state-of the art equipment. These companies are mainly operating in the free zones enclave.

Type of processing company

No of 


Installed capacity 


Actual capacity used


Underutilized capacity (t/day)
Large scale processing companies61,610923687
Small and micro companies60330188147
Start-up processing companies41761760
Revamped processing companies21048024
Smoothies Vendors10020 515
Defunct processing companies44---

Source: Hotifresh,2020

Blue Skies Limited: Fresh-cut and juice are the two main product lines. Blue Skies leads the fresh-cut business in Ghana. All fresh-cut mangoes are air-freighted. Most (45%) of its exports are sold through UK retailers and is certified to meet both the general Global GAP standards as well as the individual labels of the different retailers, such as Waitrose or Leaf. The company is also LEAF (Linking Environment and Farming), BSCI (Business, Social Compliance Initiative), Organic, Fair Trade as well as Field to Fork certified. Other market destinations for its fresh-cut exports include the Netherlands, Switzerland, Italy and France.

Integrated Tamale Fruits Company (ITFC) : The company is into fresh-cut and dry mango chips. It is in Gushie, within the Savelugu Nanton District of the Northern Region, with operations across four districts. (Savelugu Nanton, Tolon Kunbungu, Karaga and West Mamprusi). In 2011, the company has exported about 240 tons of fresh mangoes and five 40 footer containers of dried mangoes.

Bomarts Farms Fresh & Dry:  Mango Production site is located on 400 acres in the Middle of the Volta Region of Ghana, at Tafi Abuipe near Kpando. Varieties in production are Keith, Kent and Palmer. Supply is from December – February and June - August. The fruit cut pattern is a fillet and slices dried by shelves and preserved with Sulphur dioxide. Bomarts Farms trade its dried mango under the conventional as well as the organic label.

HPW Fresh & Dry Ltd. Produces dried mango, pineapple and whole coconut. The company  process over 20,000 tons of fresh fruit, export 2,000 tons of dried fruit annually.

Marketing Agents/Aggregators

A good number of agents/aggregators are available in moving farm produce to direct consumers, processors and to a limited extent, to some fresh fruit exporters.

End Market Actors

Fresh fruit export as well as the local markets, the fresh fruit cut actor as well as actors who cut and dry for export  constitute the active drivers of the value chain.  

Over a period of five years spanning 2014 to 2018, the number of exporters within the fresh mango value chain increase by152% from 21 to 53. The under-listed actors are the main drivers of the chain as they produce, procure and sell fresh and or value-added mango products.

ExporterVolume (Kg)Earnings ($)
HPW Fresh & Dry805,21634,363,321
Bomarts Farms377,4342,552,829
Integrated Tamale Fruits Company31,081291,368
Kofi Botchwey109,14813,855

Source: GEPA Database


Some Exporters of Mango

CompanyExport DestinationAddress
Blue Sky Product Ghana LimitedUnited Kingdom
The Netherlands

PO Box CT 3506
Accra, Ghana

Phone: +233 244344578


QUIN OrganicsEuropean Union

Plot No. M575/2,
Sueley House, Maria Gorretti Street
Madina Old Road

P. O. Box TF313
Trade Fair

Contact person: SAMUEL NII QUARCOO

Phone: +233 240 865212, +233 287 010438


Eve-Lyn FarmsMiddle East
Gulf Area

Oyarifa, Off Aburi Rd,
C/O Kuttam Construction Works

Contact person: Bassam Aoun

Phone: +233244211370; +233244375131


Samviver Royal VenturesThe company plants/buys farm produce from registered farmers and sell them to exporters.

Naco House. Opposite 41 Nogahill Hotel,
N1 Highway, Dworwulu

Contact person: Ebenezer Inkum

Phone: +233 20 837 6618 /+233 57 757 1788 / +233 30 294 8032


Srighan Farms Limited

United Kingdom

Sri Lanka

K. Kugathasan
Phone: +233 (0) 244 717 013
G. Satheesan
Phone: + 233 (0) 246 881 154; +233 (0) 302 412 6845

Contact person: K. Kugathasan


HPW Fresh & Dry LtdEU

P.O. Box – 740
Nsawam E/R
Loc. Adeiso -Bawjiase Road
Tel +233 50 141 99 91



Key Agronomic Practices

Growing Areas

There are two main mango production zones in Ghana, cultivated to an estimated 31,552 acres. The Southern Horticultural Zone (SHZ) which comprises parts of the Lower Eastern, Greater Accra and Volta regions, and the Northern zone which comprises the Ashanti, Brong Ahafo, Northern, Upper East and Upper West regions.  In the Central, Upper East and Upper West regions there are a handful of commercial mango farms.

The Brong Ahafo and Northern regions cultivate about 28% and 26% respectively, resulting to 54% of the total cultivated area.

Mango production in the Southern zone and Brong-Ahafo is rain-fed, while some commercial farms in the Northern zone are equipped with drip irrigation.



Growing Seasons

As a multi-year crop, transplanting is done to coincide with the peak of major season rainfall in May/June. The growing zones seasons, harvesting windows and regional distribution is shown below:


Mango growing zones and their seasons

Mango growing zones Regions Harvest season


(Two Seasons)

Eastern, Greater Accra

and Volta

Major season: May-August

Minor season: December – February


(One Season)

Ashanti, Brong Ahafo

Northern, Upper East

and Upper West


Mid-April- Mid-August


Agronomic Practices and their Importance

Good Agricultural/Husbandry PracticeBrief Description and importance
Planting MaterialThe Northern, as well as the Southern Horticultural zones, have mango germplasm containing the market varieties notably Keitt and Kent to provide reliable true to type scions for mango nurseries

Nursery Establishment


Select a good site that is accessible, clean, near a permanent water source, well-drained and free from soil-borne diseases. Seedlings are raised either directly from seed or from seedlings raised as rootstock and budded or grafted with scion or budwood that are desirable.

Seedling Production

  • Select topsoil and sandy soil mixture in a ratio of 2 to 1 as the propagation medium.
  • Plant in 6 x 8 inch plastic polybags with holes in the sides to allow for drainage. Shallow containers would prevent proper root development
  • Raise rootstock from sowing excised local mango seeds (poly embryonic) and manage in a nursery until it attains the “pencil-sized” and ready for grafting some 150 days after sowing.
  • Place bags with rootstock under 40% shade away from direct sunlight.
  • Two (2) weeks after seed germination, water with a compost tea as a booster
  • Seedling should be ready for grafting some 150 days after excised seed germination.

Grafting Process

  • Select scions from a nearby germplasm garden with mother trees aged between 8-10 years have expressed their genetic qualities in full.
  • Selected “pencil-sized” scions to match the sizes of rootstocks in the nursery.
  • Scions must be selected from largely the “Keitt” and “Kent” varieties to meet market demand. Other popular available varieties include “Tommy Atkins” and “Palmer”
  • Under competent Nursery Supervisor, trained technicians graft and protect the graft union from getting wet with a plastic cover.
Choose suitable soilsWell-drained sandy loams and loams, not waterlogged, pH range of 5.5-7.2

Agro Climate Conditions


  • Savannah ecosystems and the Transitional Forest Zones are ideal locations for mango production.
  • Rainfall: 200-250 mm/month with dry periods 2-3 months preceding flowering. Optimum temperatures of 24-30-degree Celsius.
  • Avoid the forest belt as mangos grow vegetatively at the expense of flowering on account of high moisture regime. The resulting humidity in the forest provides suitable ambience for the incidence of diseases such as anthracnose.
Land PreparationClear existing vegetation, stumps, plough and harrow where necessary. Three types of land clearing can be used: Non-mechanised, semi-mechanised and mechanised.
Windbreaks and BuildingsPlant Acacia spp and other trees that can reduce high winds and protect the orchard against severe damage from storms. GlobalGAP certification requires a building that houses a toilet, storage area, tools room and packing shed etc.




  • Seedlings are ready for transplanting into the field about 8-10 weeks after grafting.
  • Transport the seedlings to the field 3-4 days before the proposed planting date to reduce stress at planting.
  • When transporting to the field, protect seedling from the wind especially if the journey is long.
  • Avoid holding the seedlings by the stem when they are in the plastic bags. This can cause severe stem and root damage to hinder early field establishment.

Transplanting stage:

When the seedling is 45 -60 cm tall, it should be transplanted, but 70-80 cm is also all right if it is grown in larger containers


  • At a spacing of 8m x 8m, a total plant density of 62 plant per acre or 156 plants per hectare is attained. Lately, with irrigation under good management, high-density planting of 400 saplings are doable at plantstand of 5 m x 5 m
  • Construct a square hole 50 cm x 50 cm x 50 cm at each planting position.

        A sketch of planting hole dimensions 

cube 50cm


    A sketch of proper planting of seedling in a planting hole  

  • Harden and withdraw water prior to transplanting to maintain a firm ball of soil around the root. This prevents planting out bare-root mango, largely because mango is very sensitive to transplanting shock.
  • Take care not to plant too deep, otherwise, the collar-rot disease may affect the newly planted seedling. See the sketch above.
  • Plant one mango variety per plot or block.
  • Water copiously after transplanting or transplanting to meet the major rainy season.

  Post transplanting Care for young plant

  • Stake each plant to avoid lodging.
  • Raise a small basin around the seedling. Water to settle the soil to help remove all pockets of air.
  • Pruning is a very important activity in a mango orchard to attain the desired canopy and good architecture that will enhance the productivity of the trees.
  • The aim is to develop a mature tree that is 3.5-4.5m tall with a spreading inverted umbrella shape or square or pyramid when in a hedgerow.
  • Post-harvest pruning controls tree height and the pruning of crossing branches reduce the incidence of fruit damage
  • Pruning improves insolation to improve fruit colour and reduce pockets of humidity to prevent anthracnose build up in the estate
  • Selectively remove dead branches, unwanted plants, shoots and panicles to improve plant health, vigour and structure to enhance flower and fruit development.
  • Prune young trees that are 100cm by cutting at 80cm and for Keitt at 100cm of height 120. Cut below the node for side shoots. Top the trees at an appropriate height.
  • Prune after harvest. Types include production, maintenance, window, skirt and fruit-thinning.

Flowering and Flower Induction

•Two flowering seasons in the south and 1 in the north.

•Mango can be artificially induced using

  • Smudging
  • Paclobutrazol (plant hormone)
  • Potassium nitrate & Ammonium nitrate

Pest and Disease Management


Scouting for pests and diseases as often as possible ensures that a good management and control program can be implemented. Usually, the earlier a problem is detected the more effective and easier it is to control. In wetter areas, routine spraying may be necessary to manage the incidence of Anthracnose after fruit-set begins.

Key Pests and Diseases

  • Major pests include: Fruit flies, Stone weevil, mealy bugs, scale insects
  • Major diseases: Anthracnose, Powdery mildew and Bacterial black spot
  • Physiological Disorder-Jelly seed

Soil Fertility Management


Good plant nutrition is a vital requirement for achieving high fruit yield and quality. Fertilizer application should be timed to coincide the onset of rains and must be location-specific. Apply Nitrogen and potassium after harvest.

Use appropriate quantities(kg) and combinations of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium at the determined plant years. E.g Age 1-3 yrs: 10-15kg of Nitrogen, 5kg of Phosphorus and 10kg of Potassium. Age 6-7yrs: 25-45kg of Nitrogen, 15-20kg of Phosphorus and 25-30kg of Potassium. When trees are above 10 years, apply 40-100kg of Nitrogen, 20-45kg of Phosphorus and 40-120kg of Potassium. For minor nutrients, apply Boron and Zinc as foliar fertilizers. In organic production, apply cow dung. 

Weed Management
  • Weeds are usually managed culturally, manually, physically and by the application of herbicides.
  • For young trees, mulching, manual weeding or use intercropping to suppress weeds.
MulchingMulch with dry grass straw


Harvest Management


Start bearing 3 years after planting; Economic bearing start from 7 years and continue to yield for over 30 years. 

Normally fruits reach the green maturity stage in 100-110 days (4-5 months) from flowering.

The amount of yellowing in the pulp indicates maturity of fruit for harvesting. A colour chart developed in South Africa maybe use to determine fruits that are ready for exports.

Fruit harvesting and handling should be managed by properly trained personnel to avoid damage. Avoid harvesting immature and over ripped fruits.

The average yield of mangoes ranges between 3 – 5 mt/acre even though 10 mt/acre obtainable in a well managed orchards.

Fruit Harvesting

  • Use a cutting instrument such as a pair of secateurs or a picking pole for fruits high in the canopy, for harvesting.
  • Pick fruits with long stems (10cm) and lay on their side in a crate to reduce stem breakage and sap contamination.
  • Fruit stalks must be cut and turned upside down to sit on harvest racks to drain the sap.


Handling Harvested Fruits

  • Prevent direct contact of fruit on the rack with the ground or other fruits in another container in the stacking process to avoid contamination.
  • Handle fruits with care always.
  • Fruits dropped from a height greater than 30 centimetres on to a hard surface will suffer from internal cracking and may not ripe well


         Fruits on a rack to prevent ground contact


Field Packing of Fruits

  • Harvest containers must be washed and sterilized with chlorinated water before use.
  • Protect fruits against bruises and injuries, by lining the containers with soft materials (polyethylene, foam or newspaper)
  • Always keep containers with harvested fruits under shade before sending to the packhouse.
  • Identify each load indicating harvest site, variety, date, time and responsible field personnel in keeping with Global GAP requirements for traceability.


      Crate lined with newsprint to prevent bruising

Destructive maturity indicators

  • The fruit is cut open and if the flesh is turning yellow then it is reaching maturity.
  • Margarine yellow is a good indication that the fruit is ready and mature for harvest.
  • The colour chart is a useful guide.
  • Internal colour corresponding to 0,35 – 0,60 is ideal for export.
  • 0,60 is maximum internal colour allowed for export.

                        South African mango colour chart

 Post-Harvest Practices  

Post-harvest Operations

  • After harvest, clean harvest instruments with chlorinated water of at least 100 parts per million (ppm) of chlorine.
  • Never use equipment previously used for transportation of pesticides, garbage or manure.
  • Transport fruits from orchard to packhouse in containers and vehicles used exclusively for this purpose.

     Packed fruit in a stack ready for the packhouse

The operations that are carried out at the packhouse include:

  • Sorting
  • Hot water treatment/Vapour heat treatment
  • Washing
  • Waxing
  • Fungicide treatment
  • Grading
  • Packing
  • Palletizing
  • Traceability coding
  • Precooling and cold storage

         Hot water treatment by immersion

Hot water immersion is the only approved quarantine treatment for mangoes. (US/Japan market demand) 


Market Requirements

  • Fruits weighing 400-500 grams
  • Bright coloured (yellow/red/orange)
  • Fibreless
  • Without turpentine smell
  • Juicy
  • Strong aroma and good taste for Orientals and Indians that live in Europe.
  • Good shelf life (Kent, Keitt and Tommy Atkins varieties have a longer shelf life).
  • No internal problems of an insect, fungal or physiological nature.

Market Standard Requirements 

  • Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS)
  • GLOBALGAP:  A pre-farm-gate standard
  • GRASP: (GLOBALGAP+)  Globalgap Risk Assessment on Social Practice.

 Food management systems such as:

  • British Retail Consortium (BRC)
  • International Food Standard (IFS)
  • Food Safety System Certification 
  • Safe Quality Food Programme (SQF).


Key Risks Along the Mango Value Chain and Mitigation Measures

Value Chain ActionsKey Risks and ChallengesMitigation Measures

Input Supply



Land Acquisition and Tenure: Land tenure system in Ghana is complex and challenging, making it difficult for investors to access large and contiguous arable land for production. Challenges with land acquisition inhibit farm expansion.A good background investigation on the land ownership is required. The government must develop a land use policy.
Nursery and Planting Material: Lack of quality planting material –Local nursery operators raise seedlings with doubtful progeny and quality. Orchards thus, lack uniformity, fruiting at different periods, and producing fruits of varied qualities. 

 Strengthening the capacity of operators and farmers can improve yields in the long-term.

Ghana needs to work on true-to-type scions and improved budwood. 

Cost of and access to fertilizer, pesticides and other inputs including irrigation and packaging material, are major constraints for most producers. 

Rapid local currency depreciation and other factors leading to increased cost of imported fertilizers and pesticides.

Bulk buying and support with subsidized inputs will improve access to inputs.

Improved macro-economic environment.

FinanceAccess to finance and high-interest rate tend to stifle expansion of production to meet increasing market demand.Financial institutions should develop agriculture specific products for advancing credit to farmers and other value chain actors.



Bacteria Black Spot (BBS) weakens branches and causes premature fruit drop, reducing yields from 6-8 MT to 1-3 MT. Other major diseases are anthracnose and powdery mildew. Most common pests are mealy bugs, stone weevils, fruit flies, scale insects, mites, thrips and borers. 

 GAPs are required to be supplemented by   group monitoring and support. 

Timely application of pesticides in the right quantities will help reduce the incidence of pest infestation and diseases.

Weather and Other Climatic Risks: Over-reliance on natural rainfall instead of irrigation. Long spell of dry weather and flooding also affect productivity significantly 

Water stress at critical times especially during the formative, flowering and fruiting periods can affect fruit productivity and quality. 

Harvesting and use of rainwater or wells to irrigate farms especially during the dry season, the formative years and flowering periods.
Post-harvest handlingPost-harvest Management: Improper post-harvest handling reduces the farmers’ margins.Build a post-harvest training module into extension delivery and use digital videos to reinforce messages.



Access to fresh fruit market requires farmers to meet Global certification standards. 

Low quality fruits resulting in insufficient supply.

 Individuals and groups should be encouraged and supported to get certified. 

Train and build the capacity of farmers and other actors to meet the specifications, increase productivity and deliver fruits in a timely manner.


The seasonal nature of mango production. 

There are supply-side deficiencies with respect to quality, varieties, and seasonality.

Support farmers to implement GAPs to increase productivity and production of quality fruits for processing – fresh-cut, juice and dried mangoes.
ConsumptionInadequate local demand for juice and dried mangoes.Invest in promotion campaigns on the nutritional benefits of mangoes and embark on import substitution drive to increase the consumption of processed mangoes in Ghana.
OtherPoor road conditions between production zones, inadequate pack houses and cold chain facilities (storage availability, refrigerated trucks), high freight cost.Value chain actors should build cold chain facilities. Government should improve roads, and reduce freight cost.
 Poor fruiting and fruit set Adopt mango pre-harvest GAPs. Strategically withdraw water to kick start flowering,


Pests & Diseases, Symptoms and Control Measures

Major Pests and Diseases and their Control Measures

Pests & DiseasesDamages causedControl measures

Mealy bug (Drosicha mangiferae).

Alkathene banding on tree trunk to check migration of mealy bug nymphs
A close up of a fruit tree

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Mealy bugs on fruits
  • The adult bugs are covered with whitish powder and colonize on bark of tree trunk, young shoots and panicles
  • The nymphs’ ascent the trees and settle on inflorescence causing flower drop, affecting fruit set.
  • Produces honey dew that results in sooty moulds which reduces photosynthetic efficiency of mango leaves. Infestation reduces yield significantly.
  • Fruit value reduces with intense attack.
  • Raking of soil around tree trunk to expose the eggs to natural enemies and sun, removal of weeds and mixing with Chlorphriphos dust 1.5% @250 g/ tree
  • After mud plastering, banding of tree trunk with alkathene (400 gauge), 25 cm wide sheets should be fastened to the free trunk, 30 cm above ground level and application of Beauveria bassiana product (2g/litre1x107spores / ml)
  • Conservation of bio control agents, Beauveria bassiana, predators, Menochilus sexmaculatus, Rodolia fumida and Sumnius renardi.
  • Releasing 10-15 grubs of Coccinellid predator, C. montrozieri per tree.
  • If nymphs ascended on tree spray carbosulfan (0.05%) or Diametheote (0.04%).

Fruit flies (Bactrocera)

A insect standing on a field

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A punctured fruit by fruit fly oozing gum
  • The female punctures outer wall of mature fruits with the help of its pointed ovipositor and insert eggs in small clusters inside mesocarp of mature fruits.
  • On hatching, larval feeding on fruit pulp causes premature ripening and fruit drops
  • Adults and larvae-maggots cause fruit damage.
  • Late maturing varieties of mango are often more susceptible.
  • The risk of infestation is greatly increased if there are other host plants nearby whose fruits ripen earlier than mangoes.



  • Prior to harvest (30-40 days) collect and dispose of infested and fallen fruits to prevent further, multiplication and carryover of population.
  • Raking of orchard during November-December to expose pupae to sun’s heat which kills them.
  • Hangf methyl eugenol wooden block traps soaked in ethanol, methyl eugenol and malathion (6:4:1) during fruiting period @10 traps/ ha tie them tightly at 3-5 feet above ground level.
  • To control adult flies during severe infestation placing poison bait viz Protein hydrolysate +malathion 50 ml +200 ml molasses in 2 litres of water be sprayed adding an additional 18 liters of water to bait poison. Commencing at pre ovipositional period and repeat at 15 days’ interval. Addition of 10 ml methyl eugenol in place of molasses is also recommended.
  • Three weeks before harvesting, spray Deltamethrin 2.8 EC @ 0.5 ml/l + Azadiractin (3000 ppm) or 2 ml/l.


Mango Scale Insect (Chloropulvinaria polygonata, Aspidiotusdestructor)

  • The nymphs and adult scale suck the sap of leaves and other tender parts reducing vigor of plants.
  • Infested leaves and fruit turn pale green or yellow where the scales feed.
  • The growth of the leaves slows down and the twigs and branches may die back from heavy infestation.
  • They also excrete honeydew which helps in the development of sooty mould on leaves and other tender parts.
  • The sooty mould could lead to the discolouration on fruits.


  • Prune to remove excess branches to ventilate the canopy and prevent the formation of micro-climates.
  • Spray diametheote (0.06%) at 21 days’ interval.
  • Removal of attendant ants may permit natural enemies to control the insect.

 Stone weevil (Sternochetus mangiferae)

  • Evidence of infestation is small and dark marks on the skin of green immature fruits.
  • Adult weevils (5-8 mm) first lay an egg when the developing fruit is at golf ball size or chicken egg size.
  • Eggs are laid singly on the pericarp of tender fruits.
  • On hatching, grubs bore through the pulp, feed on seed coat and later damage the cotyledons. Pupation is inside the seed
  • The pulp adjacent to the affected stone is seen discoloured when the fruit is cut open.




  • Collection and destruction of infected and fallen fruits at weekly interval till harvest fruit.
  • Ploughing of the orchard after harvest to expose hibernating adults, reduce, infestation levels.
  • Destroy all left over seeds in the orchard and also in the processing industries.


  • Spraying Diametheote (0.1%) twice at 15 days interval when fruits are of marble size.
  • Spray main trunk, primary branches and the junction of branches prior to flowing with carbaryl (0.2%) or fenthion (0.1%)or Chlorphriphos 20 EC @ 2.5 ml/l to control beetles hiding in the bark.
  • Spray Acephate 75 SP @ 1.5g/l when fruits are of lime size (2.5-4 cm diameter) followed by Deltamethrin 28 EC @ 1ml/l after two or three weeks.

Mango Thrips: (Coliothrips indicus, Rhipiphorothris cruentatus, and Scirtothrips dorsalis)

  • Nymphs and adults lacerate the tissues and suck the oozing cell sap.
  • C. indicus and R. cruentatus feed on leaves and S. dorsalis on in florescence, and young fruits.
  • Leaf feeding species feed on mesophyll near leaf tips.
  • Affected leaves show silvery sheen and bear small spots of fecal matter
  • Feeding on leaves leads to malformation and the stunting of new growth.
  • Feeding on fruits occur as numerous small silver markings with shiny black spots.

Practice strict orchard sanitation.

If the infestation is severe, can be controlled by either diametheote (0.1.5%) or Monocrotophos (0.1).

Powdery mildew (Odium mangiferae)

 Mildew on flowers

Pathogen attacks the inflorescence, leaves, stalk of inflorescence and young fruits with white superficial powdery growth of fungus resulting in its shedding. 

On Leaves:

  • White powdery patches occur on young leaves which then cause leaves to curl and distort.
  • As the leaf matures and the fungus disappears, brown patches remain on the leaf.

On Flowers:

  • Individual florets are first attacked and the disease spreads rapidly covering the surface with a white powdery fungal growth.
  • The tissue underneath the fungus blackens, dries out and dies.
  • Flowers fail to open and drop from the inflorescence without fruit forming.

On fruits:

  • Causes skin cracking and corky tissue especially on fruits around pea-size.
  • The attack leads to no or very poor fruit set causing reported crop losses of 80-90%.

Prune diseased leaves and malformed panicles harbouring the pathogen to reduce primary inoculum load.

  • Spray wettable Sulphur (0.2%) when panicles are 3-4” in size.
  • Spray dinocap (0.1%) 15-20 days after the first spray.
  • Spray Tridemorph (0.1%) 15-20 days after the second spray.
  • Spraying at full bloom needs to be avoided.

Anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporiodes)

Anthracnose is caused by the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides which attacks leaves, branches, twigs, flowers and fruits. Wet, rainy and humid conditions lead to severity and spread.

Symptoms appear as necrotic spots on leaves and later coalesces. Twigs dieback, flowers have tiny spots and fruits abort when infected and mature fruits show damaged pulp.





  • Control by ensuring orchard sanitation, prune for sunlight, remove dead branches, twigs, rotten fruits.
  • Diseased leaves, twigs, gall midge infected leaves and fruits, should be collected and burnt.
  • Blossom infection can be controlled effectively by spraying of Bavistin (0.1%) at 15 days interval.
  • The foliar infection can be controlled by spraying of copper oxychloride (0.3%)
  • Pre-harvest sprays of hexaconazole (0.01%) or Carbendazim (0.1%) at 15 days interval should be done in such a way that the last spray falls 15 days prior to harvest.
  • Use bio control agent viz Streptosporangium pseudovulgare.

Bacterial Black Spot (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides)

A picture containing person, man, fruit, green

Description automatically generated
Black spots on unripe mango due to bacterial disease
  • Disease symptoms appear on the leaves, stems and fruits.
  • On the leaves, the spots are black and water-soaked. They tend to be angular because they are restrained by the veins.
  • Bacteria-infected branches look black and cracked.
  • The infected fruits develop black soaked spots mostly with star-shaped cracks within them and exude gum.



  • Prune off diseased twigs and destroy. But sterilize harvesting and pruning tools regularly during use. Otherwise, you spread the disease.
  • Spray copper oxychloride –based products when the disease is first observed in your area and has not yet infected your trees. Such products can partly prevent disease spread, but cannot cure it.
  • Do not spray during fruit set.
  • Do not enter the orchard until 1 day after spray. The pre-harvest interval is at least 7 days.
  • Also, consider preventively spraying copper products after harvest flush and after the end of the rainy season to reduce disease attack in the next season.
  • Copper can accumulate in soil and water. It can burn leaves. Therefore, never spray more than 6 kg copper per hectare per season.

Physiological Disorder

The Jelly Seed

Jelly seed is a physiological disorder in mango fruit. 

It is characterized by the excessive softening of pulp around the stone in ripe fruits thus lowering the marketability of the affected fruits. 

The losses due to this problem are estimated to be as high as 30% in some countries. 

The exact cause of this problem is unknown although it is reported to be brought about by one of the under listed factors:

  • Imbalance related to Ca, Mg, K and N supply to the fruit.
  • This imbalance may lead to low Ca: N or low Ca: N ratio thus predisposing the fruits to the disorder.
  • Calcium deficit in the fruit can be caused by either insufficient absorption or competition between growth points of the plant and fruits for available Ca.
  • The disorder is caused by the onset of germination and associated events in the seed of developing fruit due to decreased level of very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) in seed.
  • May also be related to inherent factors which make some varieties to show higher levels of susceptibility than others.
  • Calcium chloride (2.0 %)applied at fruit set is effective in reducing jelly seed occurrence.
  • Pre-harvest application of spray formulations on developing fruits, between 50% and 60% maturity, showed that formulation V (10 g·L ⁻¹ NaCl, 25 g·L ⁻¹ CaCl 2 ,0.5 g·L ⁻¹ KCl, 0.01 g·L ⁻¹ H 3 BO 3 , 0.01 g·L ⁻¹ CuSO 4 , 0.01 g·L ⁻¹ ZnSO 4 0.01 g·L ⁻¹ FeSO 4 , 0.01 g·L ⁻¹ MnSO 4 , and 0.002 g·L ⁻¹ EDTA) is effective in preventing the jelly seed.
  • NITRABOR: Applied at 150-200g per 15L.
  • KELIK POTASSIUM: Applied at 5-10L/Ha.
  • CAN-17: Applied at 1.0-2.5mls per litre of water ( 15-40ml) in 15 litres of water) according to the age of the plant.


Market Information on Mango

Marketing of mangoes have traditionally been in the hands of local women sellers over the years. With the increase in production of new, preferred, and exportable exotic mangoes, the marketing of mangoes has assumed a different dimension.

The local internal/domestic marketing channel of fresh fruit mangoes starts at the producer level – independent farms and out-growers sell non-exportable mangoes to processing companies such as Blue Skies, HPW, ITFC and other firms on the basis of contractual obligations and pre-financing arrangements. They sell mangoes that are not sent to processing firms to middle women and retailers who visit the farms during the harvesting seasons to buy mangoes. Some of the producers also sell fresh fruits directly to supermarkets such as Shoprite, MaxMart and Koala.  

The European Union and ECOWAS countries offer immediate market opportunities for Ghanaian exporters of fresh mangoes, despite the increasing popularity of mangoes in various parts of the world. This trend has been driven by, the shorter travel hours, historical ties and trade patterns with Europe.

The export of mangoes from Ghana is dominated by a few large farms, producer associations and processors such as Yilo Krobo and Dangbe West Mango Farmers Association, Bomarts, Ghanat, Prudent Farms, Evelyn Farms, ITFC, and HPW.  

With 32 market destinations and a global market share of 1.7% , Ghana’s export of Mangoes grew by 28% between 2020 and 2021. The total value of export in 2021 stood at USD 64.6 million compared to USD 50.3 million in 2020. Ghana ranked 11th in the order of countries that exported mangoes to the world in 2021.

Other prominent importers of mangoes from Ghana were Germany (USD 9.9m), Switzerland (USD 6.1m), Belgium (USD2.7m) and France (USD 1.2m).The major 4 importing countries comprising UK, Germany, Switzerland and Belgium accounted for about 91.4% of total value of export of Mangoes from Ghana. Whilst UK imports of Mangoes from the world grew by 5% between 2017-2021, Ghana’s exports to UK grew by 6% during the same period. Between 2017-2021, exports from Ghana grew by 27% to Germany and 9% to Switzerland.

Export of mangoes from Ghana to EU, increased significantly from 868 MT valued at $2.3 million in 2011 to 4,708 MT valued at $19.5 million in 2021. representing over 1,000%. This has decreased slightly to 1,741 MT valued at $10.85 million in 2017 on account of better prices and exchange rate fluctuations.

Figure 1: Fresh Mango Exports in volumes, MT and value, $, (2011 to 2021)



EU Market Structure

  • Market supplied all year round
  • August/September and in February supplies are less than during November/December (winter season) and May (with West African supplies).
  • Main exporting countries are:

– The UK, Germany, Switzerland and Belgium



Market Trends

  • Demand for count 8 and 10 or smaller size 12 per 4kg
  • Coloured mangoes (Floridan types) are preferred to green varieties (Amelie types)
  • A box of the fruit must not contain fruits weighing less than 4 kg on arrival.
  • Pack fruits in excess of the 4 kg probably 4.3 kg as mangoes lose moisture and for that matter weight while in transit.


Main suppliers and seasons

  • Brazil: September-February
  • Cote d’Ivoire: March – July
  • South Africa: December - May
  • USA: March to November
  • Mexico: May – November
  • Venezuela: March – September
  • Ghana: May-July and December – February
  • Mali – March - June
  • Peru: December-April


Price Trends

  • Prices of mangoes are differentiated for each channel depending on the quality, size, end-use, distance from marketing centre, who does the harvesting etc.
  • On the domestic market, 3 fruits sell for GH¢ 5.0 and GH¢ 10.0 during major and lean seasons respectively
  • The average price of large-sized mango for processing is GH¢ 1.8/kg and GH¢ 2/kg during the major and minor seasons respectively.
  • Over a period of 5 years (2014 and 2018), the export price of mango per kilogram ranged from $ 4.89 to $ 4.60.



Enterprise Budget for Mango


Key Policies and Projects


Sustained Export Promotion Policy

The Ghana Export Promotion Authority (GEPA), established in 1969, and the Ghana Export Trade Information Centre (GETIC), established in 2005, are the main institutions providing trade information and services to the business community, such as market access facilitation for exporting companies, technical advice and human resources development. A National Export Strategy for the Non-Traditional Export Sector (2012-2016) and a National Export Development Programme (2013) also provide guidelines for the implementation of Ghana’s domestic and international trade agenda.

Furthermore, in 2008, Ghana was the second country, after Ivory Coast, to sign a bilateral Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA)-light with the EU, which has eliminated tariffs on virtually all of Ghana’s exports to the EU and on 80 percent of imports from the EU over the next 15 years.

Other policy initiatives include the under listed

  • Food and Agriculture Sector Development Policy (FASDEP I&II)
  • National Social Protection Strategy (NSPS, 2008)
  • Medium-Term Agriculture Sector Investment Plan (METASIP I&II)
  • Investing for Food and Jobs (IFJ)


Projects and Interventions in the Horticulture Sub-Sector

  • Market Oriented Agricultural Programme (MOAP-GIZ)
  • Ghana Agricultural Sector Improvement Programme (GASIP)
  • Ghana Agricultural Development and Value Chain Enhancement (ADVANCE II)
  • Outgrower and Value Chain Funds (OVCF)
  • Horticulture Exports Industry Initiative (HEII)
  • Export Marketing and Quality Awareness Project (EMQAP).


Mango Growing Seasons and Cropping Cycle



Market Preferred Varieties

  • KENT


Soil Suitability Map for Mango

CSIR-Soil Research


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